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Ouija Boards, Spirit Communication, Automatism

Posted by Paranormalcy , 23 September 2009 · 6,874 views

links/views: pendulums dowsing automatic writing
Ideomotor Theory (Response/Effect/Reaction/Activity), Automatism and Facilitated Communication
Ouija Boards, Pendulums, Dowsing Rods, Automatic Writing, Table Rapping, Spirit Communication
Compiled by Jason J. Patterson, August 2009
Note that any URLs in this list composed of numbers (nn.nnn.nn.nnn) are Google-created HTML documents translated from .PDFs.

Automatism is one older term for the use of paranormal devices, method or apparatus, such as Ouija boards, automatic writing, dowsing rods, pendulums, table-rapping/dancing and even some otherwise "normal" or "mundane" pieces of assumed "modern technology", in order to obtain apparently acausal results (get answers, information or responses from) from an alleged paranormal source, such as a ghost or spiritual or "dimensional" entity - spirit communication, broadly.

While some pro-paranormal/spiritualist adherents may go along with the older meanings of the term "automatism", as it was used regularly back in the days of pioneering psychical research, a good number may balk at the idea of accepting the idea of the ideomotor theory, which is the most common alternate explanation, used by skeptics and more empirical science-minded critics. Essentially it is the idea that a person's implicit, latent intent or desire, or tendancy to favor one option over another, even if this intent is not consciously acted upon or even consciously known to the person himself, is likely to manifest overtly and publicly, without the person's willful intent or volition - it is involuntary (arguably "un-" or "sub-conscious") movement of a part of the body and/or an object due to a sub-cognitive layer or process of thought that occurs without the person even being explicitly aware of it.

The best example of ideomotor theory in this aspect is the movement of the traveler, indicator, pointer, planchette or whatever your chosen term is for the object, over the surface of an Ouija board, without any of the participants deliberately moving or guiding it, but merely resting their fingers on it. As noted above, other similar "oracles" (dowsing rods, etc.) are believed to operate on this same theory. Although some spiritual-minded people might claim ideomotor activity exists but may be influenced by spirits in order to impart their wisdom, the ideomotor theory properm essentially precludes the involvement of unusual influences or entities and all responses obtained via ideomotor activity are wholly the products of the user and their creativity, biases, etc., rather than a.ghost, spirit, angel, demon, alien, animal, or whatever else.

Faciliatated Communication is an hypothesis that children (or adults) unable to clearly or easily verbalize their thoughts, such as those with severe autism, could be aided and miraculously, allowed to express themselves, via means of specially trained agents, who can supposedly interpret the perceptible movements, mannerisms  and impulses of the children, and relate this information in coherent terms for others - experienced researchers and critics argue this is essentially using the children as Ouija boards, at best, being a waste of time, at worst, potentially dangerous. It is, however, one of the best examples of the mundanity (non-paranormalcy) and user-generated anomalies of ideomotor theory.

It's not much to look at, but a very brief example dictionary entry for ideomotor theory:
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary
ideomotor definition

Some pro-paranormal adherents concede the existence of the ideomotor effect:
Real Magick: The Occult Library
Hypnosis, volition, and mind control.
by Todd I. Stark
Involuntary, ideomotor, unconscious, etc.

New Age Guide
Details about 'Ideomotor Effect'
Confirmation of ideomotor effect by comrehensive New-Age site

Crystalinks - Automatic Writing

Museum of Talking Boards Theories on Ouija
Ideomotor vs. Spiritualist

Weird, Unusual and Strange Stuff
Pro Paranormal site confirms existence of ideomotor effect

Northern Ireland Paranormal Society
Ideomotor and a number of other paranormal subjects
muscular movement can be initiated by the mind independently of volition or emotions

Buckeye State Paranormal and Haunting Investigators
Ideomotor Response and Talking Boards Issue #5
Fairly standard treatment of Ouija history, movement etc.

Wiltshire Phenomena Research Blog
Investigative paranormal group confirms ideomotor existence

Some skeptics and scientists bring their "A" Game to weigh in on the subject:
Skeptic's Dictionary
Ideomotor Effect
Ouija boards

Committee for Skeptical Inquiry
General critical thinking regarding the paranormal

Forgetomori: Extraordinary claims. Ordinary investigations.
Article referencing ideomotor effect and pendulum etc

Quackwatch Home Page
How People Are Fooled by Ideomotor Action
Ray Hyman, Ph.D.
Related - Facilitated Communication, Hyman

Digital Bits Skeptic
Skepticism. Critical thinking. Podcast. Community.
The ideomotor effect

Pseudo-Science and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal
A Critical Thinker's Toolkit
Jonathan C. Smith, PhD Psychology, Licensed Clinical Psychologist
Listing of book sections of paranormal subjects, class schedule,
Links to more related articles, videos, video and web page library

Other authors and researchers in other fields (scientific/educational/governmental/medical) give their viewpoints.
The Cambridge handbook of consciousness
By Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch, Evan Thompson
http://books.google.... theory&f=false
Common coding, psychological phenomena

A Short History of Ideomotor Action

Towards a Dynamic Embodied Ideomotor Principle
Ralf F.A. Cox & Fred Hasselman
Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands
From 15th International Conference on Perception and Action Proceedings
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA
Organized by Michael G. Wade and Thomas A. Stoffregen
Sponsored by University of Minnesota Center for Cognitive Sciences, -Clinical Movement Science, School of Kinesiology, Society for Ecological Psychology

The Illusion of Conscious Will
By Daniel M. Wegner
http://books.google.... theory&f=false
Google Books format covering Ouija, automatic writing, etc.

Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind
Copyright © 1998 V.S. Ramachandran, M.D., Ph.D., and Sandra Blakeslee

The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition
GiovanniBuccino, a,* FerdinandBinkofski, b and LuciaRiggio a

Scientific American Frontiers
Decade of the Brain Q&A
Ask the Scientists
Ideomotor - last article, bottom of page
Related - Dowsing, Hyman

Dual-Task Performance With Ideomotor-Compatible Tasks:
Is the Central Processing Bottleneck Intact, Bypassed, or Shifted in Locus?
Mei-Ching Lien, Robert S. McCann, Eric Ruthruff, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center
Robert W. Proctor, Purdue University
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
Nearly incomprehensible but no-doubt highly acclaimed

Dissociating Ideomotor and Spatial Compatibility:
Empirical Evidence and Connectionist Models
Ty W. Boyer (tywboyer@indiana.edu), Matthias Scheutz (mscheutz@indiana.edu), Bennett I. Bertenthal (bbertent@indiana.edu)
Cognitive Science Program and Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA

The Function of Phenomenal States: Supramodular Interaction Theory
Ezequiel Morsella, Yale University
"Introduced by Lotze (1852) and Harless (1861) and eloquently popularized by James (1890) in his treatment of voluntary behavior, ideomotor theory states that the mental image of an instrumental action tends to lead to the execution of that action. James (1890, pp. 520–524) famously said that "thinking is for doing," meaning that the mere thoughts of actions produce impulses that, if not curbed or controlled by "acts of express fiat" (i.e., exercise of veto) result in the performance of those imagined actions.

Absolute Astronomy
Free information portal provides reference information and interactive features for over 900,000 topics.  
Content provided is aggregated from a variety of content providers
Ideomotor Effect article

Without Volition
The Presence and Purpose of Ideomotor Movement
Barrett L. Dorko, P.T.
Senior Clinician of The Atlanta Back Clinic and as a faculty member of the Institute of Graduate Health Sciences.
Beginning in 1979 he maintained a solo practice in Ohio where until March of 2007 he worked as a clinician, seeing patients each day.
Physical therapist with thirty-five years of experience as a clinician, writer, teacher, author of 900+ published essays
Speaker at ten national conventions of the American Physical Therapy Association, instructor for Cross Country Education
Conducts workshops at state chapter meetings, private institutions throughout North America.

A cognitive theory of consciousness
By Bernard J. Baars, Ph.D.
Senior Fellow in Theoretical Neurobiology
http://books.google.... theory&f=false
Conscious goal-image hypothesis

Research site for students, over 8.3M pages of literature summaries, biographies, literary criticism, essays, etc.
Ideomotor Effect Entry

Consciousness and Cognition 18
Perceiving one's own movements when using a tool
Jochen Müsseler, Christine Sutter
Psychology Department, RWTH Aachen University, Jägerstr. 17-19, Aachen 52056, Germany

CogSys II
Electrophysiological Correlates of Action Monitoring in a Joint-Action Go/No-Go Task
Stephan Miedl, Ellen de Bruijn, and Harold Bekkering
Nijmegen Institute for Cognition and Information, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Description/definition of ideomotor function
Relevant section needs to be searched for on page with Search or Find browser pulldown

Priming a New Identity: Self-Monitoring Moderates the Effects of Nonself Primes on Self-Judgments and Behavior
Kenneth G. DeMarree, Ohio State University, S. Christian Wheeler, Stanford University, Richard E. Petty, Ohio State University
Ideomotor principle (involuntary action follows implici intent) in social functioning

An Analysis of the Ideomotor Principle and TOTE
Giovanni Pezzulo1, Gianluca Baldassarre1, Martin V. Butz2, Cristiano, Castelfranchi1, and Joachim Hoffmann2
1 ISTC-CNR, Via S. Martino della Battaglia, 44 - 00185 Rome, Italy, {giovanni.pezzulo,gianluca.baldassarre,cristiano.castelfranchi}@istc.cnr.it
2 University of Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11 - 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
A thorough, scholarly delving into the concept of ideomotor functioning

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Reafferent copies of imitated actions in the right superior temporal cortex
   1. Marco Iacobonia,b,
   2. Lisa M. Koskia,c,
   3. Marcel Brassd,e,
   4. Harold Bekkeringd,f,
   5. Roger P. Woodsa,c,
   6. Marie-Charlotte Dubeaua,b,
   7. John C. Mazziottaa,c,g,h, and
   8. Giacomo Rizzolattii,j
Ideomotor aspects of learning and mimicry

Should scientists think?
Commentary on "Toward a Richer View of the Scientific Method: The Role of Conceptual Analysis"
Hakwan C. Lau 1,2 1 Wellcome Trust Centre of Neuroimaging, University College London 2
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford
Relation of intent and volition with ideomotor theory

Representational Imitation in Infancy
Planning, imitation, action

A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness
Bernard J. Baars - The Wright Institute, 2728 Durant Ave.Berkeley, Calif. 94704
Glossary and Guide to Theoretical Claims

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
Action generation and action perception in imitation: an instance of the ideomotor principle

Debunking the Ideomotor Effects
Physics Forum
Discussion of ideomotor principle by forum posters of the Physics Forum

Verbal response–effect compatibility
IRING KOCH, Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research, Munich, Germany
and WILFRIED KUNDE, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Memory & Cognition
Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects.

Brain and Cognition 63 (2007) 304–308
Methodological issues in measures of imitative reaction times
Michael D. Aicken, Andrew. D. Wilson, ¤, Justin H.G. Williams, Mark Mon-Williams
College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2UB, Scotland, UK
Ideomotor tasks and response times vs. conscious-spatial

GATech Article
PILOT: Unlocking Body Memories for Creativity: Controlling virtual
characters with tangible interfaces to augment expression and cognition
Human creativity, behavior, ideomotor responses and interaction

by Mei-Ching Lien, Purdue U.
Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907
Note: direct PDF link

Stapp's Theory of Quantum Mind
E-mail display of correspondence on subject

ESSCS St. Maximin, Provence April 1996
Robin Allott

International Journal of Machine Consciousness
Bernard J. Baars and Stan Franklin
Global Workspace, LIDA

Intention and attention in ideomotor learning
Arvid Herwig, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, Florian Waszak
Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, UMR 8158, CNRS and Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France

International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Ideomotor theory in exercise and sports

Perspectives on Imitation: From Neuroscience to Social Science
Ideomotor imitation and learning regarding animals

On building, defending, and regulating the self: a psychological perspective
By Abraham Tesser, Joanne V. Wood, Diederik A. Stapel
http://books.google.... theory&f=false
Auto-motive ideomotor priming

Conscious experiences trigger widespread adaptive changes in the human brain:  
The case of conscious neurofeedback.  
The Neurosciences Institute San Diego
Bernard J. Baars  
www. bernardbaars.pbwiki.com

Social Psychology - McDougall
Volition, social psychology, actions

Perspectives on Imitation: Mechanisms of imitation and imitation in animals
By Susan Hurley, Nick Chater
http://books.google.... theory&f=false
Ideomotor vs Sensorimotor principles as bases for all actions

Parallel and distributed neural models of the ideomotor principle:
An investigation of imitative cortical pathways
Eric L. Sauser *, Aude G. Billard
LASA Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Station 9, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

LIDA: A Computational Model of Global Workspace Theory and Developmental Learning
Stan Franklin, Uma Ramamurthy, Sidney K. D'Mello, Lee McCauley, Aregahegn Negatu, Rodrigo Silva L., Vivek Datla
Institute for Intelligent Systems and the Department of Computer Science, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
References to ideomotor theory in consideration of design of computers

Quantum Theory of the Human Person
Interrelation of quantum theory and ideomotor function

Dictionary of Psychology
http://dictionary-ps...deomotor effect
Ideomotor definition

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Volition
Hoyt Edge, Philosophy Department, Rollins College, Luh Ketut Suryani, Department of Psychiatry, Udayana University
"wherever movement follows unhesitatingly and immediately the notion of it in the mind, we have an ideo-motor action"

Psychology of Good vs. Evil
a mini-course designed by Andrew Reed
Human Development, Cornell University Spring 2006
Course schedule includes reference to experiments with pendulum

The Mind-Mind Problem
Article part of the Navy.Mil domain U.S. Federal Government military domain URL
Relevant Section 20.2
Notes on ideomotor and other paranormal ideas, robotics
"Ideomotor: actions, or muscular movements, which are automatic expressions of dominant ideas, rather than being the result of distinct volitional efforts."

The Theory of Tong Ren Therapy
Chi Gong Healing
Ideomotor function at work

Segmentation in the Perception and Memory of Events
Christopher A. Kurby and Jeffrey M. Zacks, Department of Psychology, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, USA

"Alien Hand Syndrome" (somatoparaphrenia) and Ideomotor Apraxia
Inability to exert conscious control over limb which performs actions involuntarily

Examples of Facilitated Communication's Validity (or lack thereof).
The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice
Facilitated Communication and its practical dangers
Ideomotor pseudo-science treatments for Austistics

Faciliated Communication Institute
Intended to support Facilitated Communication methods for autistics, etc.

Religious Tolerance .ORG
Different views on the subject of Facilitated Communication

Psychology Matters: American Psychological Association
Facilitated Communication: Sifting the Psychological Wheat
from the Chaff

Facilitated Communication: Courts say "No"
From Autism Research Review International, Vol. 6 no 3, 1992
Science and Pseudo-Science Review in Mental Health

American Academy of Pediatrics
Article on Facilitated Communication for autistics

New York State Commission on Quality of Care and Advocacy for Persons with Disabilities
Articles on Facilitated Communication

Hypnotic Suggestion and Cognitive Neuroscience
DavidAOakley 1,2 andPeterW.Halligan 2

American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
The Neuroscience of Observing Consciousness & Mirror Neurons in Therapeutic Hypnosis
Ernest L. Rossi
Kathryn L. Rossi
Ideomotor effect in clinical therepeutic hypnosis

Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Shannon Sumrall 1 HYP 512
Ideomotor effect and the nature of suggestability in hypnosis

Scientific American
What Skepticism Reveals About Science

Those things are never good though, bad spirts always come through to take advantage of the living. It's what i see in my line of work. I am a true Medium. If you have any questions about anything at all please feel free to ask me.
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