This is not a finite world when it comes to resources. What we have is limited access to these resources. That is what causes wars. That is what makes us strong and the reason Man survives.
Before Einstein, we were far more limited in our resources. What discoveries are yet to come? We have unlimited resources and that base always changes. That resource is Man himself. We just need the stress to unlock the awesome power of Man. And wars are just one expression of that. And the Invisible Hand is part of that.
The highlighted bit is the fundamental flaw in your position - there is a finite amount of everything and everything has a bell shaped production curve. We may never extract the last bit of oil, coal, Uranium or clean water but that doesn't mean we can extract it at a cost which is economically manageable.
The most pressing finite resource is soil which is been eroded by modern farming practices - the problem been that we need modern farming practices to feed the population - but it destroys the resource that it depends on to create our food. Soil cannot readily and affordably be replaced once it is destroyed. Coupled to this is the fact that our food is dependent on oil to create the fertilizers and drive the energy intensive machinery to extract it. Look at the fertile cresent to understand what happens when you don't respect the soil - its not as fertile as it was.
The infinite accessablility of resources if we just apply our brains to it is an illusion - there are always limits and many of them are been reached. The consequence is likely to be, as it has been in the past, that when our agriculture collapses we will attempt to invade another country to access their land. This is what China is doing, though it is buying land at the moment. Eventually the foreign agricultural lands run out also.