Recently I was involved in one debate in which we discuss who deserve to be called civilization, culture, tribes and who not.
I pointed out that civilization emerged in Sumer, Egypt, India, and China. However our Kmt Sesh pointed out that China was not civilization till Qin dynasty in 221 BC. I agreed. But...
I didnt respond well about China civilization because I was in hurry plus I was not sure about my knowledge. Now I talked with on history professor. Here is correction.
I love Mongolia, China, Japan, India. I especially like Han, Tang, Song, Ming dynasties. From Han dynasty China become center of the world till industruial revolution and that we can easy explain. Who needs machines when you have popluation who can do it? Famous Needham question goes why China didnt developed modern science since China was center of science till modern science took place. Famous four great inventions Paper, Gunpowder, Printing and Compass changed the world and they were all Chinese inventions. Even toilet paper was their invention. (?) For example after Arabs and Tang dynasty clashed paper making spread through Arab world to Spain. And in Spain King said: „What ever yo do just dont write on that thin?“ Thats kind explain where Europe was to China. Anyway, from 221 BC to 1911 China was Empire. Before that many interesting things happened such as cultures and civilization. China is often refuted for unknown reasons. I guess because rulers there were doing all kind repressions. Such as Qin burned books or when Emperor Yuan of Liang (ruled 552-555) burned collection of paints when he wanted to become Budhist monk or because human sacrifice was common till Han.
In 1921 Swede Gunnar Andersson found near village Yangshao culture. 5000 BC to 3000 BC Yangshao culture in China near Yellow river. It was matriarchal society
Then in 1928 we found amazing black thin ceramics in village Longshan in Shadong province. Longshan culture is from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Longshan culture have realy amazing pottery.
Then came (mythical) Xia (2050-1500 BC) and five emperors such as Yu the great. However for this culture we dont have evidence but many things hints us that actually existed. Also many Chinese archaeologists claim that we already found some sites from Xia like Erlitou culture.
We also have Dawenko culture 3000-2500 BC, Huating culture where we can see probably firsts atempt of writing but this still science didnt accepted.
Before we get to term civilization I will point out that before we have Zong-mysterious objects realy beautifull probably for astronomical purpose. Or jade bi disks.
Then came what many believe to be beging of Chinese civilization in full term.Shang dyansty or Yin dynasty from 1700 to 1200 BC. They done extraordinary work in Bronze and worked with very hard Jade.City Yin / Yinxu near Anjang in Henan province is fine example that they were civilization.Where we can found earliest example of Chinese writing. Because Shang were so sophisticated from beging it wouldnt be surprise to world of archaeology that we one day found Xia. Shang had highly developed urban culture in Anyang. Shang were experts in casting bronze. One interesting city was Zhengzhou which many think it could be Ao first capital of Shang . Or city Gaocheng in Hebei. Taotie mask and vases were trademark of this civilization. Intersting statues of animals such as tiger, snake, elephant and surprisingly cricket which we can see on pottery too. Many graves of Shang civlization were robbed. One grave which show us how Shang was developed and rich is tomb of lady Fu Hao.
Xian become capital of Zhou dynasty. Next dynasty or civilization which ruled from 1200 BC to Qin 221 BC. This civilization show us high tech of poterry, bronze making, jade disks with details. Suprisingly show us Siberian influence such as that animals have curved fangs/claws. What marked Zhou is money. Long coins like spear or ball looking coins or even polyigonal gold coins like those in state Chu. So we have usage of gold as money before Han as people used to believe. They were great iron casters. Ceramics was burned at 1200 C. They have had like feudalism society. Philosophy was in zenith till that time. Master Kong or Confucius, Lao Tse and etc. They have bronze seals of families. They done paints on silk. First terracota warriors dates from this period.
So I want to hear whats your opinion about Chinese. When China ends to be culture and become civilization? Do we have cut and dry time line where we can see how different civilization rise in full meaning of that world?
Thanks in advance.
Edited by the L, 09 October 2012 - 08:08 PM.