The concept of extraordinary versus ordinary was a very common idea from past centuries. It was also explored in science fiction stories in the mid 1900s Basically it grew out of the huge divisions in class and education which existed in Dostoevsky's time. It was rational for an educated man to believe that while the masses required the law to regulate their behaviuor an educated man of sensibilities (and one of a higher class and therefore innately superior) did not require those laws. He would be regulated by his informed intelligence, ethics and moralities, which transcended the laws required to keep the mases in line. After all his class created the laws and thus recognised their limited nature, where as to the masses the law had to be absolute and immutable.
Like most christians i dont think paul saw himselef as an extrordinary man; rather the opposite. He recognised the law as gods not mans and thus would have felt as much "Under" the law as any other person Down the centuries there certainly were some church men who saw the law as Dostoevsky's character did. That they had such an "in" with god that the laws did not really apply to them, or that they did not require the laws to be godly.
But honestly, i think paul was as hard on himself as on others, because god was so new to him. He didnt have centuries of tradition and power to "sanctify" him or put him above the law..
IMHO, an extraordinary man has to possess, besides several other qualities, the guts to "feel" and to force recognition as one. In the case of the extraordinary man (Raskolnikov) in Dostoevsky, he was tormented by the doubt that he was one in his generation. Hence his attempt to self inflict punishment for his actions.
It is also my opinion that Paul did see himself as an extraordinary man because, in his case, there was no other option if he had to get rid of that thorn in his flesh which would make his life miserable. As he found out the solution to his problem by using Jesus as the author to end with the Law that would condemn him, he acquired immunity to punishment for keep his sinful style of life, according to Romans 10:4 and 7:25. The point there is that he proved to be unique. No one else could enjoy that status, as he condemned to death the Christian in the church of Corinth, who had committed incest with his stepmother.