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Can we connect philosophy with racism?


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#16    Virtual Particle

Virtual Particle

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Posted 17 June 2009 - 08:24 PM

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Critical thinking is purposeful and reflective judgment about what to believe or what to do[1] in response to observations, experience, verbal or written expressions, or arguments. Critical thinking might involve determining the meaning and significance of what is observed or expressed, or, concerning a given inference or argument, determining whether there is adequate justification to accept the conclusion as true. Hence, Fisher & Scriven define critical thinking as "Skilled, active, interpretation and evaluation of observations, communications, information, and argumentation."[1] Parker & Moore define it more narrowly as the careful, deliberate determination of whether one should accept, reject, or suspend judgment about a claim and the degree of confidence with which one accepts or rejects it.[2]

Critical thinking gives due consideration to the evidence, the context of judgment, the relevant criteria for making the judgment well, the applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment, and the applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the nature of the problem and the question at hand.[2] Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance and fairness. Thinking is often casual or routine, whereas critical thinking deliberately evaluates the quality of thinking. In a seminal study on critical thinking and education in 1941, Edward Glaser  Edward Glaser writes that the ability to think critically involves three things:[4]


An attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences, Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, Some skill in applying those methods. Critical thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends. It also generally requires ability to recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problems, to gather and marshal pertinent information, to recognize unstated assumptions and values, to comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discrimination, to interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments, to recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositions, to draw warranted conclusions and generalizations, to put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives, to reconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience, and to render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life. Critical thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends. It also generally requires ability to recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problems, to gather and marshal pertinent information, to recognize unstated assumptions and values, to comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discrimination, to interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments, to recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositions, to draw warranted conclusions and generalizations, to put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives, to reconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience, and to render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life.


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Defining Critical Thinkink

Critical thinking...the awakening of the intellect to the study of itself.

Critical thinking is a rich concept that has been developing throughout the past 2500 years.  The term "critical thinking" has its roots in the mid-late 20th century.  We offer here overlapping definitions, together which form a substantive, transdisciplinary conception of critical thinking.

Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, 1987
A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul for the
{presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer 1987}.

Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness.


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Given these two links coberst do you feel more needs to be added to the definition.

I just want to be clear coberst for all concerned. yes.gif

Any thoughts?









Time is a form of communication
Consciousness transcends all states
that can be perceived as matter
Matter communicates its existence
to consciousness through time        
Man is infinite
God is more
Black Hole Creates Spectacular Light Show

#17    Virtual Particle

Virtual Particle

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Posted 19 June 2009 - 04:11 AM

Racism is a very serious issue and with respect to certain commentaries it is very easy for folks to get offended. In the Civil War of the United States two states, which had slaves, were allowed to keep there slaves and fought for the North (this is public information). The issues of machines capable of collecting cotton? We are talking about the Cotton gin a devise capable of working faster than humans. Southerners considered the possibility of competing with such a devise, by securing more slaves. This meant that there intent was to go south in relation to Central America, the Caribbean and South America to secure more slaves. There was another issue and this was in respect to the rest of the world, this being that (for example) Karl Marx (May 5, 1818–March 14, 1883)   response to the abuses which, had resulted from the industrial revolution. In the Eastern Hemisphere (in those days) everyone was a slave except of course those in charge; labor laws did not exist and the idea of working 16 hours a day was common place (Racism with respect to class and a new caste system). Caucasian American Southerners (the intellectuals) given the then, current situation, were very concerned that technology would result in them themselves becoming slaves (this was not unrealistic given what was going on those days in fact it was obvious).

The reality was that technology was changing how people in society interacted and southerners had no real justification to trust Abraham Lincoln (after all he was born in Kentucky). Had there not been a Civil War I feel that Abraham Lincoln would not have been assigned the position that he has today and the reality is that had there not been a Civil War in the US things would have been no different that what happened in the Eastern Hemisphere at the time. Now the reason I understand this is because I went to college (in the US) one can search the internet and find such information but in respect to what one learns in the US prior to college, it is that Abraham Lincoln freed the slaves. The Democratic Party began in the South after the Civil War and they did take over the government of the US soon after the civil war was fought. Yes in the south we do have problems with the KKKK (there is actually 4ks not 3) but fundamentally the Civil war in the US was about the human condition and the Industrial Revolution.

What has been presented is and effort in Critical Thinking and an opinion based upon my understanding of history. As to if it is taught in schools today sure, my exposure to the above was presented in 7th grade (Catholic school) and again reinforced when I was working on my Associates Degree (first 2 years of college). This issue of correct information is integral to development of Critical Thinking skills.


Critical thinking has to do with (for example) looking at an éclair and not only understanding how good it tastes, but also how unhealthy it is to eat one. In this way making a decision to eat it, is based upon all potential issues and not just how good it tastes.

Any thoughts?


Time is a form of communication
Consciousness transcends all states
that can be perceived as matter
Matter communicates its existence
to consciousness through time        
Man is infinite
God is more
Black Hole Creates Spectacular Light Show




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