Jump to content




Welcome to Unexplained Mysteries! Please sign in or create an account to start posting and to access a host of extra features.


- - - - -

Animal Cognition


  • Please log in to reply
2 replies to this topic

#1    Virtual Particle

Virtual Particle

    Government Agent

  • Member
  • 3,424 posts
  • Joined:15 Dec 2005
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Miami,Florida

  • c^2= (d/t)^2 = d^2/t^2 = (d^2) x (1/t^2)...Time is squared

Posted 28 April 2010 - 09:27 PM

Quote

Animal cognition

Animal cognition is the title given to the study of the mental capacities of non-human animals. It has developed out of comparative psychology, but has also been strongly influenced by the approach of ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology. The alternative name cognitive ethology is therefore sometimes used; and much of what used to be considered under the title of animal intelligence is now thought of under this heading.

In practice, animal cognition mostly concerns mammals, especially primates, cetaceans and elephants, besides canidae, felidae and rodents, but research also extends to non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds such as parrots, corvids, and pigeons, lizards or fish, and even to non-vertebrates (cephalopods).


Source link

Quote

Cetacean intelligence denotes the cognitive capabilities of the Cetacea order of mammals and especially the various species of dolphin. Cetaceans include whales, porpoises, and dolphins, and while all are broadly considered intelligent, dolphins have generated much more attention than their relatives, which are much less observed and thus more difficult to study.

Source link

Quote

Whales may share our kind of intelligence, researchers say after discovering brain cells previously found only in humans and other primates.

They were touted as the brain cells that set humans and the other great apes apart from all other mammals. Now it has been discovered that some whales also have spindle neurons - specialised brain cells that are involved in processing emotions and helping us interact socially.

Spindle cells, named after their long, spindle-shaped bodies, are the cells that are credited with allowing us to feel love and to suffer emotionally. Their discovery in whales will stimulate debate both on the level of whale intelligence and on the ethics of hunting them.

The cells occur in parts of the human brain that are thought to be responsible for our social organisation, empathy, speech, intuition about the feelings of others, and rapid "gut" reactions (see The cell that makes us human).

Source link


Quote

Matt Kaplan

for National Geographic News

December 15, 2009

Octopuses have been discovered tip-toeing with coconut-shell halves suctioned to their undersides, then reassembling the halves and disappearing inside for protection or deception, a new study says.

Source link

Quote

Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma, gradually tapering into a single apical axon in one direction, with only a single dendrite facing opposite. Whereas other types of neurons tend to have many dendrites, the polar shaped morphology of spindle neurons is unique. They are found in two very restricted regions in the brains of hominids - the family of species comprising humans and other great apes. Spindle cells are also found in the brains of the humpback whales, fin whales, killer whales and sperm whales [1][2], bottlenose dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, beluga whales[3] and in the brains of African and Asian elephants.[4] The name von Economo neuron comes from their discoverer, Constantin von Economo (1876-


Source link


Any thoughts?

Edited by Triad, 28 April 2010 - 09:43 PM.

Time is a form of communication
Consciousness transcends all states
that can be perceived as matter
Matter communicates its existence
to consciousness through time        
Man is infinite
God is more
Black Hole Creates Spectacular Light Show

#2    Virtual Particle

Virtual Particle

    Government Agent

  • Member
  • 3,424 posts
  • Joined:15 Dec 2005
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Miami,Florida

  • c^2= (d/t)^2 = d^2/t^2 = (d^2) x (1/t^2)...Time is squared

Posted 29 April 2010 - 01:52 AM

Quote

Cetartiodactyla is the clade to which whales (including dolphins) and even-toed ungulates have currently been placed. The term was coined by merging the name for the two orders, Cetacea and Artiodactyla, into a single word. The term Cetartiodactyla reflects the idea that whales evolved from within the artiodactyls. Under this definition their closest living land relative is thought to be the hippopotamus. The clade formed by uniting whales and hippos is called Whippomorpha or Cetancodonta. Alternatively, the term Cetartiodactyla is used to denote a clade where Cetacea and Artiodactyla are sister groups, but where Cetacea did not actually evolve from within the Artiodactyla. Under this definition, all artiodactyls, including hippos, are more closely related to one another than any are to the whales.

This group has been proposed as a new order, but there is not sufficient evidence of the exact relationship between the two current orders to efficiently merge them.

Whales evolved from land mammals and appear to form a monophyletic group. The notion that all whales evolved from a single ancestor is not in dispute. The most widely accepted hypothesis before the 1990s was that the closest relatives to whales were the fossil group Mesonychia. These were hooved, predominantly carnivorous, mammals that are known only from fossils. Few modern authorities still consider mesonychids to be more closely related to whales than artiodactyls. Instead, they are usually considered to be the closest relative of the Cetartiodactyla as a whole.

Source link

Quote

Cognition
Experiments by James Gould suggest that honey bees may have a cognitive map for information they have learned, and utilize it when communicating.

In one test reported in a 1983 issue of Science News, he moved a supply of sugar water 25% further away from a hive each day[13]. The bees communicated to each other as usual on its location. Then he placed the sugar water on a boat anchored in the middle of a small lake. When scouts returned to the hive to communicate their find, other bees refused to go with them, not expecting to find food in the middle of a lake, even though they frequently flew over the lake to reach pollen sources on the opposite shore.

In another test related in the August 1986 issue of Discover ("A Honey of a Question: Are Bees Intelligent?"), Gould lured some bees to a dish of artificial nectar, then gradually moved it farther from the hive after they became accustomed to it. He marked the addicted bees, placed them in a darkened jar, and relocated them to a spot where the hive was still visible, but not the dish. When released one by one, the bees would appear disoriented for a few seconds, then fly directly for the covert dish. 73 of 75 bees reached it in about 28 seconds. They apparently accomplished this feat by devising a new flight path based on a cognitive map of visible landmarks.


Source link

Quote

Science 16 May 1986:
Vol. 232. no. 4752, pp. 861 - 863
DOI: 10.1126/science.232.4752.861
  

Articles

The Locale Map of Honey Bees: Do Insects Have Cognitive Maps?
JAMES L. GOULD 1
1 Department of Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.



Whereas higher vertebrates are able to construct a mental "map" of their home area and so use their knowledge of the spatial relations between landmarks to navigate along novel routes, invertebrates have been thought able to use landmarks in their navigation only as a familiar, route-specific series. Experiments with honey bees show that these insects have and use landmark maps thus invalidating this presumed invertebrate-vertebrate dichotomy.

Submitted on September 10, 1985
Accepted on February 5, 1986


Source link


Any thoughts?

Edited by Triad, 29 April 2010 - 02:22 AM.

Time is a form of communication
Consciousness transcends all states
that can be perceived as matter
Matter communicates its existence
to consciousness through time        
Man is infinite
God is more
Black Hole Creates Spectacular Light Show

#3    Virtual Particle

Virtual Particle

    Government Agent

  • Member
  • 3,424 posts
  • Joined:15 Dec 2005
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Miami,Florida

  • c^2= (d/t)^2 = d^2/t^2 = (d^2) x (1/t^2)...Time is squared

Posted 04 May 2010 - 10:45 PM

Quote

The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology
Bryan N. Danforth†, Sedonia Sipes‡, Jennifer Fang§, and Seán G. Brady¶
+ Author Affiliations

Department of Entomology, 3119 Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
Communicated by Charles D. Michener, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, May 16, 2006 (received for review February 2, 2006)

Next SectionAbstract
Bees, the largest (>16,000 species) and most important radiation of pollinating insects, originated in early to mid-Cretaceous, roughly in synchrony with the angiosperms (flowering plants). Understanding the diversification of the bees and the coevolutionary history of bees and angiosperms requires a well supported phylogeny of bees (as well as angiosperms). We reconstructed a robust phylogeny of bees at the family and subfamily levels using a data set of five genes (4,299 nucleotide sites) plus morphology (109 characters). The molecular data set included protein coding (elongation factor-1α, RNA polymerase II, and LW rhodopsin), as well as ribosomal (28S and 18S) nuclear gene data. Analyses of both the DNA data set and the DNA+morphology data set by parsimony and Bayesian methods yielded a single well supported family-level tree topology that places Melittidae as a paraphyletic group at the base of the phylogeny of bees. This topology (“Melittidae-LT basal”) is significantly better than a previously proposed alternative topology (“Colletidae basal”) based both on likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results have important implications for understanding the early diversification, historical biogeography, host–plant evolution, and fossil record of bees. The earliest branches of bee phylogeny include lineages that are predominantly host–plant specialists, suggesting that host–plant specificity is an ancestral trait in bees. Our results suggest an African origin for bees, because the earliest branches of the tree include predominantly African lineages. These results also help explain the predominance of Melittidae, Apidae, and Megachilidae among the earliest fossil bees.

Source

Any thoughts?

Time is a form of communication
Consciousness transcends all states
that can be perceived as matter
Matter communicates its existence
to consciousness through time        
Man is infinite
God is more
Black Hole Creates Spectacular Light Show




0 user(s) are reading this topic

0 members, 0 guests, 0 anonymous users