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[Archived]Oera Linda Book and the Great Flood


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#4786    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 08:44 AM

View PostOtharus, on 10 May 2011 - 08:38 AM, said:

I referred to the one Alewyn quoted, in which he made some words larger. It started with:
"Pseudoscientific language comparison is a form of pseudo-scholarship that has the objective of establishing historical associations between languages by naive postulations of similarities between them.
BTW, many 'official' scientists accuse each other of being "pseudo-scientific" when they don't agree...

Ok, that was a quote from Wiki.

But all is not lost: if that Olivier van Renswoude (the "Taaldacht" site, http://taaldacht.nl/ ) returns from wherever he is and responds to my question to him about the OLB and the Rüstringer dialect, then maybe we will know a bit more.

.

Edited by Abramelin, 10 May 2011 - 08:46 AM.


#4787    Otharus

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 08:52 AM

View PostAbramelin, on 10 May 2011 - 08:41 AM, said:

And another thing about the language: it is too modern. It is based on something much more recent.
How do you know that? Can you quote a credible specialist?

Quote

And the OLB is supposed to have been copied from generation to generation, so even with some changes, overall the language should still look really ancient.
Please read my earlier reply to that below.

View PostOtharus, on 09 April 2011 - 07:37 AM, said:

One of the most important reasons why OLB is rejected by most Dutch scholars seems to be that the language is relatively easy to understand.

Since the oldest known texts in Dutch, Frisian, Saxon etc. are more difficult to understand, people assume, that anything older should be even more difficult than, or more different from our 'modern' language.

What they don't realize is that while the written history (written language) had been thoroughly destroyed in a few hunderd years of cultural genocide, the spoken language may have stayed almost the same for people who did not migrate and mix too much.

In the late Middle Ages, the only people who could read and write, had learnt this in Latin (not counting the few exceptions like Liko and Hidde, who risked their lives writing in the old language).

At some point they tried to write down the commonly spoken language (that was much older than Latin), but they had no more examples, they had to construct or actually reconstruct the spelling.

So instead of the evolution of language being linear or exponential (from very primitive to very advanced), it was actually more cyclic; at some point very advanced, and then as a result of wars, migrations and mixing of cultures, it became confused and partly forgotten, while later, in times of relative peace, it was reconstructed again.

Because of the similarities in the North-European languages, we can conclude that they must have had the same (or at least a shared) origin, much older than any known written source.

Nowhere ever have I seen one convincing example of "modern Dutch" in OLB that would prove that it cannot be as old as it says it is.



#4788    The Puzzler

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 08:59 AM

View PostAbramelin, on 10 May 2011 - 06:57 AM, said:

Yeah, let's forget about details, so we can make up whatever we want.

The OLB says "last year". What next, was the writer demented??
lol no I don't think he was demented.

I do think there is an explanation of some kind.

Maybe he wasn't actually in Luiwert, when the flood he spoke of 'last year' occurred.

1+1 could be 3.

He says last year - he says the time frame since Atland sunk - he only says the converted time in Christian Reckoning.

I'm not sure but I have my doubts about starting a timeframe at a supposed person's incarnation date.

When he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year he himself stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior", which was 525 years "since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ".[10] Thus Dionysius implied that Jesus' Incarnation occurred 525 years earlier, without stating the specific year during which his birth or conception occurred.

"However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, Olympiad, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus; much less does he explain or justify the underlying date."

http://en.wikipedia....iki/Anno_Domini

22nd century:
2104 BC 2103 BC: Date of the Biblical flood according to the Hebrew Calendar.
[edit] Significant personsGudea
Ur-Nammu
Noah (27041753 BC) according to the Hebrew Calendar
http://en.wikipedia....22nd_century_BC

2104-2103BC - The Flood according to Hebrews.
Gudea was significant in this period as I already said.

2704-1753BC - Noah - this makes Noah 1049 years old, he's not even that old in the Bible I don't think.

...and you want to quibble over a few years.

I really don't think too much should be put into ANY dates.



You want to talk about 3 years...?

In an mmm bop it's gone...

#4789    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 09:30 AM

View PostThe Puzzler, on 10 May 2011 - 08:59 AM, said:

lol no I don't think he was demented.

I do think there is an explanation of some kind.

Maybe he wasn't actually in Luiwert, when the flood he spoke of 'last year' occurred.

1+1 could be 3.

He says last year - he says the time frame since Atland sunk - he only says the converted time in Christian Reckoning.

I'm not sure but I have my doubts about starting a timeframe at a supposed person's incarnation date.

(.....)


You want to talk about 3 years...?


I know the flood may not have happened in Leeuwarden at all, so I have been looking for a flood nearby, and the one that comes closest in the date of the OLB (1256-1=1255 AD) is the stormflood in Rüstringen, 1251 AD.

And as I said long ago, all those floods were recorded.

=

The Christian Reckoning was in use for many centuries, along with the Julian calendar.

It's not important what the mythical date of the Flood actually was, as long as they have pinned it down to one date, and in this case: 2194 BC (or better, so and so many years before a certain other date).


From the OLB:

OKKE MY SON—

You must preserve these books with body and soul. They contain the history of all our people, as well as of our forefathers. Last year I saved them in the flood, as well as you and your mother; but they got wet, and therefore began to perish. In order not to lose them, I copied them on foreign paper.

In case you inherit them, you must copy them likewise, and your children must do so too, so that they may never be lost.

Written at Liuwert, in the three thousand four hundred and forty-ninth year after Atland was submerged—that is, according to the Christian reckoning, the year 1256.


You assume that these people, who lived under Christian rule for many centuries, would not know what year it was??

The only reason you think these dates are not important is because without that accuracy you can freely introduce new 'connections', lol.

.

Edited by Abramelin, 10 May 2011 - 09:39 AM.


#4790    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 09:43 AM

View PostOtharus, on 10 May 2011 - 08:52 AM, said:

How do you know that? Can you quote a credible specialist?


Please read my earlier reply to that below.

I know you have bought and read the Beowulf saga, and then I found this (it's a bit jumbled up because it is copied using OCR):



INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE
OF LANGUAGE.
BY A. H. SAYCE, 1880.


(..)

The Low German family is especially interesting to
the Englishman, whose own language belongs to it,
Anglo-Saxon, that is, the three slightly varying Anglian,
Kentish, and Saxon dialects, 1 was spoken by a mixture

" The Anglian was characterized by a special tendency to
throw off final n, and by a frequent use of the weak ending u(n}.

of tribes from the north of Denmark and the whole coast
of the German Ocean, and in spite of successive deposits
of Danish, Norman-French, and Latin, has remained the
kernel and essence of the English language up to the
present day. The tribes who remained at home were
afterwards termed Frisians, their oldest literary remains
being some legal documents of the thirteenth century.
The Frisic subdialects are very numerous, notwithstand-
ing the smallness of the population that speaks them, but
they have suddenly sprung into notoriety of late in con-
sequence of the curious forgery known as " The Oera
Linda Book," which professes to have been composed in
the year 559 B.C. The earliest English or Anglo-Saxon
production is the epic of Beowulf, of the seventh century,
portions of which still breathe a pagan spirit ; but it
may have been composed on the continent. The literary
dialect of Anglo-Saxon was destroyed by the Norman
Conquest, and the period that followed sometimes
termed Semi-Saxon was characterized by a struggle
between the local dialects and Norman French. With
the middle of the thirteenth century begins a new stage
in the history of our speech, which for the sake of con-
venience may be called Early English ; then comes
Middle English, the Court dialect of Chaucer and his
followers, succeeded by the Modern English of Elizabeth
and our own day. Besides Frisic, Anglo-Saxon claims

Kentish and Saxon agreed in the absence of these features. Saxon
was distinguished both from Anglian and Kentish by its as for /.
Kentish, finally, was separated from the others by its occasional ei
for eg" Sweet : " Dialects and Prehistoric Forms of English," in
the "Transactions of the Philological Society of London," 1876
(p. 19).
close relationship with the Old Saxon of the south be-
tween the Rhine and the Elbe ; indeed, from the second
to the fifth centuries the three groups of dialects, Frisic,
Anglo-Saxon, and Old Saxon, probably formed but a
single language, which differed chiefly from the extant
Old Saxon in its preservation of the diphthong ai and
of the thematic i and u. 1 The most important relic of
this Old Saxon tongue is the Christian poem of the
" Heliand," or " Saviour," preserved in two MSS. of the
ninth century. 2 Its modern representatives are the Low
German proper, or " Platt Deutsch," spoken in the low-
lands of northern Germany, and the Netherlandish,
divided into its two dialects of Dutch and Flemish.
Flemish was once the Court language of Flanders and
Brabant, but has had to yield its place to the Dutch.


http://www.archive.o...ycuoft_djvu.txt
http://www.archive.o...age/ii/mode/2up


But I await Van Renswoude's reply.


#4791    Otharus

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 09:49 AM

About the flood from which the OLB was saved at some point:

There were floods all the time and there was not much recording of them going on.

Therefore, that there's no record of a flood in 1255 proves nothing.


#4792    Otharus

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 09:51 AM

View PostAbramelin, on 10 May 2011 - 09:43 AM, said:

But I await Van Renswoude's reply.
OK, I will welcome his opinion too.


#4793    The Puzzler

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 09:56 AM

View PostOtharus, on 10 May 2011 - 08:01 AM, said:

That's because the Swedish royal family is actually French (just like the Dutch royal family is mostly German).  :lol:

http://en.wikipedia...._John_of_Sweden
Ah right...I hadn't followed his line yet, but have followed Philip of Spain and found when I reached someone who DID NOT have Roman nose, his mother was this woman...

Posted Image
http://en.wikipedia....ary_of_Burgundy

This French woman has a very 'ski jump' type nose, not Roman at all, her husband is this man -

Posted Image

Their son is this man:

Posted Image

Who looks decidely Dutch to me.

I can see her non-Roman nose in her French side. French women from what I generally see don't have very big noses.

Here's another picture of her and her husband and family, he is above as well, he has a great honker on him.

Posted Image
http://en.wikipedia....ary_of_Burgundy


Yes, Carl Philip can go back to this man, Charles XIV - Charles John who was French by birth, looks just like him too.

Posted Image
http://en.wikipedia....iste_Bernadotte

Otherwise he is quite tied into the Germanic Saxe-Coburg-Gotha lineage and therefore the English royal family too.

I was thinking this guy looked like Eric Bana as Hector in Troy and then how weird is that - apparently Orlando Bloom is this Prince Carl Philip's lookalike...Paris - of France....I'm creeped out now. lol  :huh:

Posted Image

Edited by The Puzzler, 10 May 2011 - 10:03 AM.

In an mmm bop it's gone...

#4794    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 10:10 AM

View PostOtharus, on 10 May 2011 - 09:49 AM, said:

About the flood from which the OLB was saved at some point:

There were floods all the time and there was not much recording of them going on.

Therefore, that there's no record of a flood in 1255 proves nothing.

No way, they recorded every flood, and just now I found an interesting document about it:

Early Years of the Little Ice Age in Northern Europe, 1300-1500

http://www.zum.de/wh...n/shin2.html#sf


IV. Frequent Sea Floods in the 13th Century
IV.1) Introduction

            Living in the low-lying areas on the coasts of the North Sea always meant always having inundations from the North Sea as a potential destabilizing factor. If exceptionally high tides happened to coincide with gale-force winds, the angry sea could swallow up several thousand hectares of farmland in a few short hours. This paper focuses on the 13th century when it seems that sea floods were abnormally frequent compared to preceding or proceeding centuries.

            The first chapter will prove the increased frequency of sea floods of the 1200s from historical accounts and depict direct consequences such as devastated settlements and changes in the coastal geography. The second chapter will try to address the sudden increase of sea floods in the context of the medieval climatic trends and draw few potential causes. Finally, and possibly most importantly, the third chapter will highlight the more indirect impacts of such increased sea floods and storminess upon the course of development of coastal civilizations, and particularly upon the development of dykes.

(..)

A classic example of coastline change during the 1200s is the formation of the Zuiderzee in today's Netherlands. Though today, part of what used to be the Zuiderzee has been reclaimed and the rest has been turned into a freshwater lake (IJsselmeer), until the 20th century Zuiderzee used to be a part of the North Sea as the name "zee" (sea) indicates. In Roman times around 0 AD, it used to be called Lake Flevo, and indeed it was but a freshwater lake which was connected to the sea through a river called the Vlie. Gradually the lake enlargened itself and by the end of the 5th century it was called "Almere" (Great Lake), though not a sea yet theoretically (144). Then the process was accelerated and completed during the 13th century. In a flood in 1250, it is said that the Northern half of the Zee formed (145). In 1287, during a flood in which 80,000 people died in Holland the formation of the Zuiderzee was completed (146). The flood turned the Vlie, hitherto a freshwater outlet of Almere (Zuiderzee), into a saltwater channel and broke the hitherto uninterrupted chain of dunes permanently to the south of Texel; the Zuiderzee was now clearly a part of the North Sea in the form which persisted until the recent intervention of mankind (147). The storms and floods that gave birth to the Zuiderzee in the northern parts of the Low Countries, also largely determined the geography of the estuaries of the Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt in the south as these rivers grew deeper(148).

            A similar situation manifested on the Frisian (now German) coast when the Jadebusen basin was largely formed during a storm of 1218 that killed as many as 100,000 people in northern Frisia and the county of Holland (149). Also, the early 1200s was a critical period in the formation of Dollart Bay where the Ems discharges itself to the North Sea.

IV.2.3) Disasters
            Storms and floods powerful enough to change coastal landscapes were undoubtedly forceful enough to swipe away entire villages and entire populations. Among many accounts of such disasters, the following are some of the conspicuous catastrophes: in a single flood in North Holland in 1212, 306,000 are known to have died (150). (note(151)) As a result of the floods of 1240 it was reported that sixty parishes accounting for over half the agricultural income of the Danish dio cese of Schleswig had been "swallowed by the salt sea" (152). In the floods of 1216, when King John of England was crossing the Wash, he lost the Crown Jewels to the water and subsequently died a few days later from the shock (153). In 1251, in Kent and Lincolnshire chroniclers recorded of floods 2m higher than "ever seen before" (154). In 1218, in the flood when Jadebusen was formed, 100,000 people died along the coasts of the North Sea, and in the subsequent year, 36,000 people died in Friesland from a storm(155).


IV.3) Why the Sea Floods?
            IV.3.1) Explanatory Reasons

(...)


Posted Image
Figure 4.1 Number of severe sea floods reported each century in the North Sea (After Lamb)

Posted Image

(...)

With the advent of dykes, however, men could no longer afford to not cooperate with each other. Because dykes usually span over large areas, often surrounding a large district, a neighbor's fate differed not much from one's own. In short, the fight against the sea was no longer a solitary task. Though it would be extreme to say that all the personal quarrels suddenly disappeared forever, in times immediately after floods, the "truce of the dikes" would override personal grudges for the common good (209). A thirteenth-century document records the oath of Rustringen: "We Frisians will defend our land, whether the tide be ebbing or flowing. We well fight day and night so that all Frisians may be free, for as long as the wind blows through the lods and the world remains" (210).

            The increase in flooding danger during the 1200s again altered the political geography significantly. Increased flood risks called for more comprehensive dike systems (211) and more integrated, systematic work than ever. Thus, it was in the 1200s that early institutions concerning water management like waterschappen (waterships), dijkgraaf (lord of the dykes) were established often under the central authority of those like the Count of Holland (212). Also in 1237, the Hollandse Waard was formed. Soon after, Count William II and Count Floris V of Holland laid down a whole series of laws on dykes known as dijkwet in attempt to establish social order (213). Some regional institutions like the Hoofdwaterschap in the Rhine area that was established in 1255 became powerful companies whose influence even exists today



#4795    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 10:16 AM

I kind of liked this line:

"A thirteenth-century document records the oath of Rustringen:

"We Frisians will defend our land, whether the tide be ebbing or flowing. We well fight day and night so that all Frisians may be free, for as long as the wind blows through the lods and the world remains."


:)


#4796    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 11:40 AM

View PostAbramelin, on 10 May 2011 - 10:16 AM, said:

I kind of liked this line:

"A thirteenth-century document records the oath of Rustringen:

"We Frisians will defend our land, whether the tide be ebbing or flowing. We well fight day and night so that all Frisians may be free, for as long as the wind blows through the lods and the world remains."


:)


Don't trust anything, even though it sounds nice.... sigh.

So here is a different version of that oath:

"There is a certain grandeur in the oath of Rustringen recorded in an old thirteenth-century document:

'We Frisians will defend our land with five arms: with sword and buckler, with spade, fork and spear, whether the tide be ebbing of flowing. We will fight day and night so that all Frisians may be free, both now and hereafter, as long as the wind blows through the clouds and the world remains.'



http://books.google....ringen"&f=false


OK, and now to find the original Frisian text.



+++++++++++++++++++

EDIT:

Not found the original text yet, but I found something close and nowhere else then on the Taaldacht site (that gives me hope Van Renswoude can actually answer my question):

Ak skilu wí úse lond wera mith egge and mith orde and mith thá brúna skelde with thena stápa helm and with thene ráda skeld and with thet unriuchte hêrskipi.

(Ook zullen wij ons land verdedigen met zwaard en met speer en met het bruine schild tegen de hoge helm en tegen het rode schild en tegen de onrechte heerschappij.)

http://taaldacht.nl/...et-rode-schild/

In English:
Also we will defend our land with sword and spear and with the brown shield against the high helmet and against the red shield and against the injust lordship/rule

And it is indeed a text from Rüstringen:
http://books.google.... skelde&f=false


.
.

Edited by Abramelin, 10 May 2011 - 12:29 PM.


#4797    Otharus

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 01:18 PM

View PostAbramelin, on 10 May 2011 - 10:10 AM, said:

No way, they recorded every flood, and just now I found an interesting document about it
So for this you trust the Frisian 'fantastic' historiography?

A memory fresh-up:

View PostOtharus, on 21 February 2011 - 06:54 AM, said:

Water-floods in Friesland
(source: "It aade Friesche Terp, of KRONYK der GESCHIEDENISSEN van de VRYE FRIESEN", 3rd edition 1834, p.334-339)

- 333 North Holland; Zijpe/ Roman city "Grebbe", half hour north of Wieringen would have been lost
- 435 Frl.
- 516 Frl.
- 570 or 533 [or both]
- 584
- 586 or 626, or both, in Frl./ 4 years later Adgillus started making floodmounds and terps, first dykes
- 792 or 793 many people and cattle lost, several cities, villages, forests and lands lost
- 806 St.-Thomas flood, Frl./ from this one till mid 12th century several floods in Friesland, North-Holland, Zeeland and Flanders, specially 839
- 1164 beginning of the year; St.-Julians flood; thousands of people and cattle lost
- 1178 All-Saints flood; "all-destroying"/ sea came up to Utrecht/ partly caused by "greedy Frisian abotts" who had been digging in the lands
- 1200 part of Frl.
- 1212 "terrible waterflood" in North-Holland
- 1219 january; Marcellus flood, "incomparable", much destruction between Wezer and Schelde, thousands of lives lost.
- 1220, '21, 22, 23, 24 every year; as well as in '27/30/37/46/48,49,50/57/62/66/73/77/85/87,88/90; utterly disasterous years for Friesland. In this century Ezonsstad, Camminghaburg near Leeuwarden, Britsenburg at the Middelzee, Wartena partly, and Grind completely disappeared.

- 1313, as well as in '34/36/61/77/80/87.
- 1400 the "Friesche vloed"; important for the rise of Amsterdam because of the widening  of Marsdiep.
- 1403 third Catharina's flood
- 1421 St.-Elisabeth's flood; 72 villages in South-Holland's Waard flooded, 20 completely lost.
- 1425,26,27,28,29 every year, '34/37/46/64/70/74/77/97
- 1502,03/09/16.17/20/24,25 (3 floods in one year)/30,31,32 (31 and 32 possibly the same flood)/52/59
- 1570 All-saints flood; "reshaped the coastlines from France to Norway", "indescribable", ca. 20.000 dead in Frl.
- 1572,73/75/77,78; some dykes and dams were built
- 1610 south-west corner; 1623/25/43.
- 1651 St.-Pieters flood, after river floods in january in the Netherlands; the following months in Frl. and terrible for North Holland.
- 1665/75.
- 1701/03/15/17; "7 kersflood" mainly in East Friesland
- 1731 a plague of worms eating wooden foundation of dykes ("paalworm").
- 1775,76 in Frl.
- 1825 destruction at coastlines from North-Jutland to France.

The publication where this is taken from is considered by dr. Jensma c.s. to be part of the tradition of Frisian "fantasy based" historiography...



#4798    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 01:36 PM

View PostOtharus, on 10 May 2011 - 01:18 PM, said:

So for this you trust the Frisian 'fantastic' historiography?

A memory fresh-up:

I won't have to trust anything, I am just looking for the sources the OLB writers used, heh. If someone lied through his teeth, and wrote down 1255 as the date for some flood, that's fine with me.

Btw, never noticed this one:

"1220, '21, 22, 23, 24 every year; as well as in '27/30/37/46/48,49,50/57/62/66/73/77/85/87,88/90; utterly disasterous years for Friesland. In this century Ezonsstad, Camminghaburg near Leeuwarden, Britsenburg at the Middelzee, Wartena partly, and Grind completely disappeared."

Close but again no cigar.


#4799    Abramelin

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Posted 10 May 2011 - 11:45 PM

I got an email from someone not posting in this thread, asking me if there was another (Frisian) source for the date of 2193 BC, that most famous date in the OLB.

Well, again, the date should be 2194 BC because they substracted 2 dates, and came out millenia before BC, and forgot there is no year Zero.

Anyway, Otharus already posted that other source long ago - De Friesche Volks Almanak - but here it is again (and I added a screenshot):

Friesche Volks Almanak - of 1839

http://images.tresoa.../fa/fa_1839.pdf

Posted Image

TIJDPERKEN = Eras

First underlined sentence :

The year after the birth of our Lord J.C.: 1839

Second underlined sentence:

(Years passed) Since the Flood: 4032


1839-4032= -2193 ... or 2194 BC.


.

Edited by Abramelin, 10 May 2011 - 11:56 PM.


#4800    Abramelin

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Posted 11 May 2011 - 12:05 AM

View PostAbramelin, on 10 May 2011 - 01:36 PM, said:

Btw, never noticed this one:

"1220, '21, 22, 23, 24 every year; as well as in '27/30/37/46/48,49,50/57/62/66/73/77/85/87,88/90; utterly disasterous years for Friesland. In this century Ezonsstad, Camminghaburg near Leeuwarden, Britsenburg at the Middelzee, Wartena partly, and Grind completely disappeared."

Close but again no cigar.

The site Otharus got the dates of floods from says a bit more:

1251 Jever: Sturmflut
1257 Dedesdorf. Sturmflut
1262 Jever: Sturmflut, die den Glockenturm von Wittewierum ins Schwanken bringt
1277 Dedesdorf: Sturmflut. D. Ramsauer: "Erste Weihnachts
1282 Jever: Sturmflut
1285 Jever: Sturmflut
1288 Jever: Sturmflut
1290 Jever: Sturmflut


http://www.klausdede...rundjade&sub=07

The Jever what was once Rüstringen, and Dedesdorf is opposite Rüstringen County.

("Sturmflut" = storm flood).

Still, no flood at 1255.

Btw, the book also gives a really nice and very detailed version of the Friso ("Frieso") story...



+++++++++++++


EDIT:

Other sources are even more detailed:


In den jaare 1257, den 10de van October, is Friesland weder door een watervloed overstroomt geworden; waar door de dyk in Groningerland, by Zonda, daar de rivier de Fivela met nieuw werk bedykt was, omverre wierd geworpen, en voorts het water over het land stroomde.

In den jaare 1262 wierd in Friesland eene aardbeevinge gevoelt, welke Groningen mede trof, inzonderheid het klooster Wittewyrum, waar door de toren instortte: hier op volgde een watervloed door de dyken, met verbreeking van de zyl Fismar, in den Oldambte.


http://www.gutenberg...3-h/33563-h.htm

In short: on the 10th of October, 1257 Friesland was again flooded by a breach of a dike in Gronningen, the province east of the province of Friesland.

And in 1262 they felt an earthquake in Friesland, one also felt in Groningen, that caused a tower of a monastary to collapse followed by yet another flood through the breached dikes.

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The Jade Bay is what was eventually formed during those floods, and what flooded Rüstringen:

Nowadays it is generally supposed that
catastrophic floods at the beginning of the 13th
century initiated the formation of the Jade Bay
and thus led to the division of the region into two
independent political entities: “Bovenjadingen”
and “Butjadingen”. The name Butjadingen derives
from the Low German word “buten” and the name
of the river Jade. “Buten” means “outside”, hence
the name “Butjadingen” can be interpreted as “the
land on the other side of the Jade river”.


http://www.waddensea...ement-Heete.pdf


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Edited by Abramelin, 11 May 2011 - 12:20 AM.