It made the promise as Vladimir Putin, the Russian prime minister, chaired a meeting about Russia's space programme on the eve of the fiftieth anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 orbit of the Earth.
The Kremlin is using next Tuesday's anniversary to boost patriotic sentiment and briefing documents handed out prior to Mr Putin's meeting showed it is determined to restore its space programme to its Soviet-era glory.
"Above all, we are talking about flights to the moon and the creation of a base close to its north pole where there is likely to be a source of water," the documents said. "This could be achieved close to 2030."
A manned mission to Mars would be possible in the 2030s, they added.
Russian scientists have touted the moon as a potential source of energy, saying it contains large reserves of helium 3, a sought-after isotope that may be the key to a new way of generating power.