The UK oil giant will be pitted against the US states that were affected by the spill and the Department of Justice. It faces the biggest civil fine in history.
It comes after BP agreed in November to pay $4.5bn (£2.9bn) to settle criminal charges relating to the spill.
The trial is to be held in New Orleans.
The trial will determine the causes of the spill, and assign responsibility to the parties involved, including BP, contractor Halliburton, rig operator Transocean, and Cameron, which manufactured the blowout preventer meant to stop oil leaks.