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Ancient sites in South America


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#76    poppet

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Posted 28 March 2013 - 07:20 PM

Puma Punku

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At its peak, Puma Punku is thought to have been "unimaginably wondrous”, adorned with polished metal plaques, brightly coloured ceramic and fabric ornamentation, trafficked by costumed citizens, elaborately dressed priests and elites decked in exotic jewellery. Current understanding of this complex is limited due to its age, the lack of a written record, the current deteriorated state of the structures due to treasure hunting, looting, stone mining for building stone and railroad ballast, and natural weathering.
The area within the kilometre separating the Puma Punku and Kalasasaya complexes has been surveyed using ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, induced electrical conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility. The geophysical data collected from these surveys and excavations have revealed in the area between the Puma Punku and Kalasasaya complexes the presence of numerous man-made structures. These structures include the wall foundations of buildings and compounds, water conduits, pool-like features, revetments, terraces, residential compounds, and widespread gravel pavements all of which now lie buried and hidden beneath the modern ground’s surface.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumapunku

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Tour operator’s drive straight past puma Punku, most guide books ignore the site and most documentaries don’t give it a mention either, the latest on BBC Four, The Lost Kingdoms of South America with Jago Cooper is an example of Puma Punka not getting a mention even though he devoted an hour to Tiwanaku and the surrounding area.
However there are many researchers and web sites that hold Puma Punka with great reverence claiming evidence of advanced technology, ancient aliens and the like and personally it was one of the sites that has intrigued me for a good many years.

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South east corner with only one tier of block work remaining.

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South water channel

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West face

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Excavated water channel on the north face and as you can see whatever they were connected to has long disappeared. They may have been used as an overflow for a sunken water temple or a flow and return for a water fountain or shrine.
As the Akapana is now viewed as a water temple or storage tank could Puma Punka have been a sort of substation for the huge irrigation system built for maintaining the water levels on their raised bed growing system.

RAISED-BED IRRIGATION AT TIWANAKU, BOLIVIA

A 32-year drought from 563-594 AD caused widespread devastation but There is evidence, however, that a lesson was learned. The rulers took the catastrophe as a warning. They revolutionized their agriculture, instituting a totally new system which, some believe, allowed the empire to prosper for an additional 400 years. In any event, Tiwanaku agricultural surpluses after the drought can be attributed to raised-bed irrigation. Water surrounded raised agricultural mounds Warmed during the day, the water kept the crops from freezing during the cold Andean nights and even extended the growing season. Raised-bed agriculture grew to encompass an immense area, at least 19,000 hectares (47,120 acres). Studies show that land cultivated in this manner could yield 20 metric tons of potatoes per hectare. Construction of the raised-bed irrigation system no doubt required major earth moving operations.

http://www.waterhist...ku/tiwanaku.pdf

A c14 date has been taken from the lowest part of the infill, which has been calibrated to AD 536–600 which uncannily matches the drought dates given.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumapunku

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Notable features at Pumapunku are I-shaped architectural cramps, which are composed of a unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy. These I-shaped cramps were also used on a section of canal found at the base of the Akapana pyramid at Tiwanaku. These cramps were used to hold the blocks comprising the walls and bottom of stone-lined canals that drain sunken courts. I-cramps of unknown composition were used to hold together the massive slabs that formed Pumapunku's four large platforms. In the south canal of the Pumapunku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. In sharp contrast, the cramps used at the Akapana canal were fashioned by the cold hammering of copper-arsenic-nickel bronze ingots.[8][10] The unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy is also found in metal artifacts within the region between Tiwanaku and San Pedro de Atacama during the late Middle Horizon around 600–900.

Keystone cuts are also found at Angkor Watt, Karnak, Denderra and Ollantaytambo.



Good footage of the water channel.

http://interactive.a...pumapunku1.html

2002 excavation report.


#77    poppet

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Posted 28 March 2013 - 07:22 PM

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Partially excavated top

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The Plataforma Lítica, or stone platform on the east side has the largest blocks, the heaviest being 131 tons made from red sandstone and quarried 10 km away.

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Petrographic analysis located the quarry for the abundant red sandstone 10 km away—an incredible distance considering that one of the stones alone weighs over 130 tons. The source of the green andesite stones—the material from which the most elaborate carvings and monoliths were made—is on the Copacabana peninsula, 90 km across Lake Titicaca.
Below is a link to a 2002 experiment to extract a nine ton block, load it onto a 15 metre reed boat and sail it the 90km across the lake.

http://penn.museum/d.../Reed Boats.pdf

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Here we can see a portion of a gate that is a match to the “gate of the sun “standing in the kalasasaya which has led some  to the belief that they were part of the same structure, but which one has been  moved to where I have no idea.

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There has been 10 H blocks uncovered so far made from green andersite and  weighing 1.5 tons each and all nearly identical to each other.

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The craftsmanship and detail is extraordinary.

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Back of the H blocks.


#78    poppet

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Posted 28 March 2013 - 07:24 PM

Although 99% of Puma Punku has vanished the fragments that are left tantalize the imagination as to how the site once would have looked.

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The right hand side block at the rear looks unfinished.

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Close up of the same block suggesting that hammer stones were used to form the recess.

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This block seems to get the most attention, as there is a perfect groove with identically spaced holes drilled along the cut.

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To achieve this, the holes may have been drilled out, abrasive sand added into the holes and then a bronze alloy saw used to make the groove.no such saw has been found yet so I’m just speculating.

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Another block with a drilled groove, this block looks like it could have been used as a mould.

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More drill holes in what was once a lintel, with extraordinary detail that is just still visible.


#79    poppet

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Posted 28 March 2013 - 07:38 PM

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There’s still plenty of blocks still left to be excavated.

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Nearly every block is uniform with acute angles and iconography, except this one which has what appears “fish scales” not unlike the Bennett monolith and fluting down one side.

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Two of the oldest photos of puma Punku I can find.

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H block diagram.

Puma Punku seems to stand alone from all the sites I visited, although there is virtually nothing left what remains is an example of incredible masonry skills and even more bewildering is any trace of the tools that were used.
What we have to bear in mind is that this masonry would have been executed under the direction of an architect, who would have designed the building before the first stone was cut .


Days of Darkness (AD 535-AD 546)

http://ezinearticles...-546)&id=202540

At the moment i tend to lean towards Puma Punku being constructed after this event ,it's function would be to keep the irrigation fields supplied with water when their was a drought, a sort of safe guard , the north and south water channels are my only evidence of this.

but thats purely speculation on my part and if anyone else has some other theory ..........im all ears.


#80    Abramelin

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Posted 28 March 2013 - 07:53 PM

View Postpoppet, on 24 March 2013 - 03:50 PM, said:

I'm back in th UK , i spent nearly 3 weeks in Peru only staying in 2 hotels 2, nights running lots and lots of traveling with a organized tour .......not without it's ups and downs i may add.
Peru is a stunning country and i would go back tomorrow but on my own and sorry the furthest down we managed was nazca.

Lol, here's a map of Peru: now look where you have been (Lake Titicaca) and where Arequipa is located:

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Anyway, I love the pics !

Edited by Abramelin, 28 March 2013 - 07:54 PM.


#81    Abramelin

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Posted 28 March 2013 - 08:11 PM

OK, one photo from me, one that wasn't that bad. Let's all promote Peru, lol.

Iquitos, near the left bank of the Amazon river, in the evening (in fact, it was like 5 miles downstream, in the jungle; it was in that area that that primitive human skull was found that was on display in La Recoleta, Arequipa):

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Edited by Abramelin, 28 March 2013 - 08:18 PM.


#82    MonkeyOrchid

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Posted 28 March 2013 - 08:16 PM

What a wonderful half hour or so ive just spent reading your posts poppet. Glad yer joined. Galaxy Fruit n Nut time now and a film but as the great man himself said "I'll be back"


#83    lightly

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Posted 29 March 2013 - 02:57 PM

... another picture of the gate of the sun.. before it was uprighted again.

Attached File  gateofsun.jpg   69.98K   5 downloads

Important:  The above may contain errors, inaccuracies, omissions, and other limitations.

#84    Dark_Grey

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Posted 19 April 2013 - 04:58 PM

Fantastic pictures - it was very interesting read thanks for that :tu:
I recognize some of those stones from the "factually based" Ancient Aliens.They were fascinating on the show and they are just as fascinating here

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#85    Harsh86_Patel

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Posted 22 April 2013 - 07:51 AM

The Spanish have dated most of these sites wrongly, to fit in their Young Earth world view. I can imagine how paranoid the Early Spanish Robbers called conquistadors must have been on seeing the snake emblems all over the place, connecting it to Satan the evil serpent who gave the apple to Eve.
They have clearly written the History of these monuments to fit their agendas which was ultimately to rule these people and exploit them.
The entire place and it's grandiosity clearly symbolises a much more ancient and advanced culture, imagining how these monuments and stone cities would have looked in their hayday would have sent shivers down their Spanish spines.There are such famed cities and kingdoms described in many anceint texts, which we very casually dismiss as myths but these large cities and monuments definitely make us believe otherwise.There are tales of cities in the Heavens i.e a poetic exaggeration for cities at really high altitudes, which modern historians dismiss as implausible.
I dont buy that most of them have been built completely between 1000- 1400 AD, the aztecs and incas may have occupied most of these from a previous ancient peoples or maybe the Aztecs and Incas were descendants of a way more older civilised peoples.

What is the other thing that astonishes me is , why build at such high altitudes, where it is more difficult to build,stay or grow crops. It's like they were fortifying/gaurding against something approaching from below...probably a flood or rising water levels. Why bind and elongate their skulls? What would the physiological impact be on the brain?
What i suspect is that most of these monuments/megaliths were built for the purpose of surviving for 1000's of years by a people who were staying there for 1000's of years.It doesn't seems like the Incas and Aztecs build them so they can later abandon it in a couple of centuries.

Edited by Harsh86_Patel, 22 April 2013 - 07:56 AM.


#86    poppet

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Posted 24 June 2013 - 05:51 PM

Caral: The Earliest known Civilization in the New World

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Early in 2001, a site located on the Pacific coast of Peru which had been known for over a hundred years made headlines all over the world. The site of Caral and the cluster of eighteen similarly dated sites located in the Supe Valley included in what is now called the Caral-Supe Civilization are important because together they represent the earliest known urban settlement in the Americas nearly 4600 years before the present

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The City of the Pyramids

Caral was discovered in 1996 by Peruvian archaeologist Ruth Shady. Shady knew of the existence of some sandy hills near the Supe River bank and with a grant from the National Geographic and the help of two archaeologists and three students of archaeology from the University of San Marcos in Lima, began the first excavations in 1994.
Subsequent work with government support, including the use of heavy machinery of the Peruvian Army to clear the rubble from the surface of the first hill, led to the discovery of an astonishing stone building nearly the size of four football fields and about 5 stories high. This finding gave credibility to the research and gathered new resources which allowed continuing the work. In total six gigantic pyramids were discovered. Additional 26 architectural structures of various sizes and functions have also been described including several medium and small buildings, temples, residential areas, public plazas, an amphitheater, stores, shrines and streets. It has also been established the existence of places near the city, on the south bank of the river, equipped with canals and irrigation systems presumed having been used for agriculture.


Read more: http://digitaljourna...5#ixzz2HyfwXi3J

Read more: http://digitaljourna...5#ixzz2HyflmwtD

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Further investigations

In 1997 Ruth Shady published her work "The Sacred City of Caral-Supe at the dawn of civilization in Peru" (in Spanish) where she describes and supports the pre-ceramic origin of ancient Caral. The interest derived from her work allowed her to get in touch with researchers at the University of Chicago who worked with her to establish the age of organic objects found in the ruins using the radiocarbon dating technique. Through radiocarbon analysis it was confirmed that the city would have developed starting from around 2700 BC. Some other structures at sites near Caral gave a date of about 3000 years BC.

Read more: http://digitaljourna...5#ixzz2HygFIboh

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Quipu at Caral

The recovery of quipu from the civilization of Caral, if the context and dates are correct, suggests several things. First, this is additional evidence that Caral was a precursor to the Inca civilization (since the Incas also used quipu). Secondly, quipu as a tradition dates at least 2000 years older than we recognized prior to this point. Thirdly, and most importantly, if quipu were indeed a form of written communication, they are among the earliest forms of writing in the world, only slightly younger than cuneiform, which has been identified at the Mesopotamian site of Uruk approximately 3000 years BC.


#87    Macroramphosis

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Posted 25 June 2013 - 05:34 AM

Fascinating read, Poppet. Thank you for taking the time to post your photos and thoughts.

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#88    Papagiorgio

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Posted 25 June 2013 - 01:02 PM

Interesting and informative. Great Thread! :tu:

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#89    third_eye

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Posted 25 June 2013 - 01:41 PM

tops and pops Poppet .... great job

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you the rock .... :tu:

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#90    Big Bad Voodoo

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Posted 25 June 2013 - 11:03 PM

Can I use some of your pics in others thread? They are great.

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