you pointed out in another thread herethat Khufu's birth name and horus name have been found so far on the papyri recovered.
i know they have only found fragments so far, but i was wondering: is there any significance that might be conveyed if Khufu's official title as pharaoh is not present on any of the documents found?
Hi, blackdogsun. I'm not sure if I fully understand your question about "Khufu's official title" but I'm going to take a stab at it.
The designation "pharaoh" for an Egyptian king (from the ancient Egyptian term pr-aA, "Great House," referring to the palace) did not exist in Khufu's time. It doesn't appear until Dynasty 18, a thousand years after Dynasty 4. The most common word for king was nsw, and this was used in all periods. There were of course numerous other ways to refer to kings (e.g., Lord of the Two Lands, He of the Sedge and Bee). Such designations usually precede the cartouche. I'm seeing the same images of the ancient papyri anyone else here can see on the internet, and those portions with Khufu's names are not preserved to the extent of material preceding the names, so I can't be sure what's there.
But the fact that his formal throne name, Khnum-Khuf, is written inside a cartouche and his Horus name, Medjedu, is inside a serekh, confirm his status as king. Only monarchs were permitted to write their names with these devices.