I'll skip commenting in detail on your citations since the first is from Blavatsky, who was something of a nut-job occultist with little understanding of history; the second is Herodotus, whose Histories is fascinating and entertaining to read but is riddled with obvious errors borne of Greek bias; and the last two seem to be related to astrology, which is not a legitimate branch of historical enquiry.
You'd be much better off to search out legitimate professional historians who could guide you toward lots of useful and reliable answers.
You're correct that the Greeks didn't invent the zodiac. Nevertheless, the zodiac in your image represents a purely Greek adaptation of it. This zodiac has nothing to do with ancient Egypt, where an entirely different comprehension of the heavens was known. In point of fact we don't see anything truly in the nature of a zodiac in dynastic Egypt prior to the Greek period. What we see are star charts, and there are quite a few of those—often depicted in tombs.
The oldest and one of the most famous is the star chart in TT353 at Deir el Bahri, which belonged to the great steward Senenmut of Dynasty 18 and was probably a cenotaph for him, given that he had another tomb. Click here for an image of it. Senenmut and his cenotaph with the star chart date to the mid-fifteenth century BCE. The next notable example comes from KV17, the tomb of Seti I in Dynasty 19. Click here for a line-art representation of part of the chart. Seti I and his tomb date to the early thirteenth century BCE.
There are numerous other examples down through the dynastic period, but you get the idea. At least I hope you do. As you can see, there is no realistic concordance with the Greek-style zodiac. That is not evident in Egypt until well into the Greek period, such as the well-known example from Dendera. This does resemble the Greek-style zodiac, but results only from several centuries of intensive interaction with Greeks; as you can see the Dendera zodiac is a mixture of the Egyptian and the Greek. It dates to around 50 BCE, as I recall.
In other words, your zodiac image has nothing to do with dynastic Egypt, nor would the Egyptians have cared about or understood it till the end of their history—and only then from interactions with the Greeks.
I am left wondering where you get your sources from. I mean, Homer? Historians still debate whether this was even a real man or a Greek synthesis of ancient bards. Practically nothing substantial is known of his life. Solon? He might very well have travelled to Egypt but only late in his life and only to escape the tumult he caused in Athens due to his constitutional reforms.
I don't have time to comment on all of your list, but in fact there's no reason to. While it's true the Archaic Greeks were inspired and influenced by Egypt, the folks in your list lived long after that time and were the beneficiaries of centuries of Greek improvements on the original Egyptian models (mathematics, architecture, art, et cetera). On the face of it, it is well understood historically that the Egyptians did not practice any sort of developed philosophy—at least nothing like the philosophies of Greece with which we're familiar.
What are your sources?