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Dinosaur of the Day


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#76    frogfish

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Posted 27 May 2006 - 02:25 PM

Pachycephalosaurus
Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis
  
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Pronounced: Pack-e-Sef-ah-low-Saw-rus
Diet: Omnivore (Meat & Plant-Eater)
Name Means: "thick head lizard"
Length: 26 feet (8 m)
Height: 8 feet (3.5 m)
Weight: 1 ton (900 kilos)
Time: Cretaceous    
Location: Western U.S.  

  This was a real bonehead. The skull of Pachycephalosaurus was 8 inches thick on top. For years, scientists thought it was used primarily for head-butting contests, sort of like mountain goats do today, but recent studies of the skeletons of related dinosaurs show that its neck might have broken if it tried that.

A skeleton of the Pachycephalosaurus has never been found, so most of what is known about it is only from the skull and its close relatives. There are several strange characteristics, in addition to its thick skull. It lived at the very end of the dinosaur age, when most dinosaurs were fairly advanced, yet it still had five fingers, a primitive characteristic. Also, the shape of its teeth was somewhat primitive, similar to those of the Stegosaurus which had lived over 100 million years earlier. These were clearly plant-eater teeth, but it also had front teeth that could have been used like a meat-eater.



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#77    Master Sage

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Posted 27 May 2006 - 07:17 PM

Make it 4 or 5! I love that guy!

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#78    Conspiracy

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Posted 27 May 2006 - 10:36 PM

The pachycephalosaur family are ominvores? since when? i always thought they only ate plants, not both o.o

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#79    frogfish

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Posted 28 May 2006 - 12:18 AM

Quote

The pachycephalosaur family are ominvores

Insects thumbsup.gif

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#80    Conspiracy

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Posted 28 May 2006 - 03:07 AM

never knew that lol

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#81    frogfish

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Posted 28 May 2006 - 02:08 PM

Styracosaurus
Styracosaurus albertensis
  
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Pronounced: sty-Rack-o-Saw-rus
Diet: Herbivore (Plant-Eater)
Name Means: "spiked lizard"
Length: 18 feet (5.5 m)
Height: 6 feet (2 m)
Weight: 3 tons (3,000 kilos)
Time: Cretaceous    
Location: Western U.S., Southwest Canada  

  Styracosaurus is an ancestor of the Triceratops. It lived about 10 million years before its more famous relative. Not as large as Triceratops, Styracosaurus had a row of long spikes around its frill. It also had a long horn between its eyes and nose. This plant eater was designed to chew up the very tough leaves of low-growing plants.

The long spikes and horn would have made it difficult for the predators of that time, such as the early tyrannosaur, Albertosaurus, to take on an adult Styracosaurus. This creature had the typical features of the ceratopsian dinosaurs - a beak that would have been used to cut the leaves from the plants and a row of densely packed teeth to chew them into pulp.

There are several theories as to the use of the spikes on the frill of Styracosaurus. In addition to a defensive weapon, they may have served to make the creature look larger and more formidable or they may have been brightly colored for display during mating rituals.
  


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#82    Mosasaurs

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Posted 29 May 2006 - 05:27 AM

Name Means: "Alarming hero reptile" Length: 40 feet (13 m)
Pronounced:  TAR-bow-SAWR-us Weight: 6 tons (6,000 kilos)
When it lived: Late Cretaceous - 67 MYA    
Where found:  Mongolia    

Introduction

     Tarbosaurus was a carnivorous dinosaur from the Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia. Like its close North American relative, Tyrannosaurus, it was one of the last surviving dinosaurs. Although the skull of Tarbosaurus was large, it was not very heavy. This was because it was comparatively thin, and contained large air pockets. The vertebrae and ribs were hollow, as were the bones of the upper arms. Most saurischian dinosaurs had light, hollow bones, which allowed them to grow to large sizes, like Mamenchisaurus, or to be fast and agile, like Tarbosaurus.
    Tarbosaurus is more ancient than the T-rex, it suggests the genus could initially have appeared in Asia and then entered North America (through the land bridge connecting these continents in the Cretaceous). Tarbosaurus was a carnivore, eating anything it came across. Because of its bulkiness, it was probably a scavenger. But there is still debate, whether tyrannosaurids were active predators or scavengers. These dinosaurs were probably herding animals they could hunt for large herbivorous dinosaurs (Saurolophus etc). Tarbosaurus had sturdy and quite long legs and its fore limbs were reduced as typical of all carnosaurs. Function of their forelimbs is still not clear. Like other tyrannosaurs, it had a huge head with large cutting serrated teeth. Its brain was unbelievably tiny in comparison with its huge body.
Discovery

   The Sino-Swedish Paleontological Expeditions of 1927-31 to the Gobi in China turned up some nondescript tyrannosaurid material, but it was not until after World War II that the Gobi yielded its first bonanza of tyrannosaurid specimens, including excellent, nearly complete skulls and skeletons of what seemed to be several new species. In 1946, the Paleontological Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (Akademia Nauk) negotiated with the Mongolian People's Republic to send expeditions to the Gobi to search for fossils. The first expedition, during the summer of 1946, was mainly for reconnaissance, to prospect for sites where interesting fossils might be uncovered. These were found all over the southeastern Gobi, but especially in the Nemegt Basin It was on this reconnaissance expedition that the huge partial skull and vertebrae of a gigantic tyrannosaurid were unearthed. It was a spectacular discovery: the first good tyrannosaurid specimen to be found in Asia.  The follow-up expedition did not occur in 1948.  On May 9, field technician J. Eaglon came across a ten-meter-long skeleton, nearly complete, in red sandstone of what are now known as the Upper Nemegt Beds. The expedition promptly called it "Eaglon's skeleton." It was the first of seven more or less complete tyrannosaurid skeletons of various sizes brought back to Moscow by the expeditions of 1948 and 1949. In addition, partial skulls, fragmentary skeletons, isolated bones, and scattered teeth of tyrannosaurids almost too numerous to count were exhumed. Considering the rarity of tyrannosaurids in North America, this was a real windfall.    
Classification

    After the third and final Academy of Sciences expedition in 1949, the work of describing the Gobi dinosaurs fell to Maleev. In two brief papers in 1955, in consecutive issues of the Proceedings ["Doklady"] of the USSR Academy of Sciences, he established one new genus and four new species for the tyrannosaurids. In his initial paper, he described the 1946 specimen (PIN 551-1), with a skull (were it complete) slightly larger than that of AMNH 5027, as the holotype of the new species Tyrannosaurus bataar (the trivial name derives from the Mongolian for "hero" or "warrior"; Figure 26). The other three taxa were described in his second paper: Tarbosaurus efremovi ("Efremov's frightening lizard") for a nearly complete skeleton about 10-12 meters long (PIN 551-2; Figure 27); Gorgosaurus lancinator ("shredder" or "one who tears to pieces") for a skull and associated fragmentary postcranial remains of an animal about 9 meters long (PIN 553-1; Figure 28); and Gorgosaurus novojilovi (honoring geologist Novozhilov) for an incomplete skull and associated fairly complete skeleton about 6 meters long.  In 1955, Maleev named this species Tarbosaurus bataar.  It was later reclassified as a tyrannosaur.
     Recent studies have determined that T. bataar is differentiated from T. rex by smaller forelimbs (Horner and Lessem, 1993), the angular terminates in front of the surangular fenestra, the surangular fenesta is smaller, and the maxilla ends behind the lachrimal (Carenter, 1992). There have also been no specimens of T. bataar reported outside of Asia. These discoveries resulted in this animal being returned to full generic status.  Tyrannosaur bataar is now Tarbosaurus bataar.  
Species    

    The above studies have also shown that there is a strong possibility that Shanshanosaurus is a juvenile Tarbosaurus, sinking that genus.  There is a possibility that T. bataar can be split further into T. bataar and T. efremovi.  As of today, Only one species of Tarbosaurus, T. bataar, has been officially established.



#83    Mosasaurs

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Posted 29 May 2006 - 05:30 AM

Name Means: "Alarming hero reptile" Length: 40 feet (13 m)
Pronounced:  TAR-bow-SAWR-us Weight: 6 tons (6,000 kilos)
When it lived: Late Cretaceous - 67 MYA    
Where found:  Mongolia    

Introduction

     Tarbosaurus was a carnivorous dinosaur from the Gobi Desert of southern Mongolia. Like its close North American relative, Tyrannosaurus, it was one of the last surviving dinosaurs. Although the skull of Tarbosaurus was large, it was not very heavy. This was because it was comparatively thin, and contained large air pockets. The vertebrae and ribs were hollow, as were the bones of the upper arms. Most saurischian dinosaurs had light, hollow bones, which allowed them to grow to large sizes, like Mamenchisaurus, or to be fast and agile, like Tarbosaurus.
    Tarbosaurus is more ancient than the T-rex, it suggests the genus could initially have appeared in Asia and then entered North America (through the land bridge connecting these continents in the Cretaceous). Tarbosaurus was a carnivore, eating anything it came across. Because of its bulkiness, it was probably a scavenger. But there is still debate, whether tyrannosaurids were active predators or scavengers. These dinosaurs were probably herding animals they could hunt for large herbivorous dinosaurs (Saurolophus etc). Tarbosaurus had sturdy and quite long legs and its fore limbs were reduced as typical of all carnosaurs. Function of their forelimbs is still not clear. Like other tyrannosaurs, it had a huge head with large cutting serrated teeth. Its brain was unbelievably tiny in comparison with its huge body.
Discovery

   The Sino-Swedish Paleontological Expeditions of 1927-31 to the Gobi in China turned up some nondescript tyrannosaurid material, but it was not until after World War II that the Gobi yielded its first bonanza of tyrannosaurid specimens, including excellent, nearly complete skulls and skeletons of what seemed to be several new species. In 1946, the Paleontological Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (Akademia Nauk) negotiated with the Mongolian People's Republic to send expeditions to the Gobi to search for fossils. The first expedition, during the summer of 1946, was mainly for reconnaissance, to prospect for sites where interesting fossils might be uncovered. These were found all over the southeastern Gobi, but especially in the Nemegt Basin It was on this reconnaissance expedition that the huge partial skull and vertebrae of a gigantic tyrannosaurid were unearthed. It was a spectacular discovery: the first good tyrannosaurid specimen to be found in Asia.  The follow-up expedition did not occur in 1948.  On May 9, field technician J. Eaglon came across a ten-meter-long skeleton, nearly complete, in red sandstone of what are now known as the Upper Nemegt Beds. The expedition promptly called it "Eaglon's skeleton." It was the first of seven more or less complete tyrannosaurid skeletons of various sizes brought back to Moscow by the expeditions of 1948 and 1949. In addition, partial skulls, fragmentary skeletons, isolated bones, and scattered teeth of tyrannosaurids almost too numerous to count were exhumed. Considering the rarity of tyrannosaurids in North America, this was a real windfall.    
Classification

    After the third and final Academy of Sciences expedition in 1949, the work of describing the Gobi dinosaurs fell to Maleev. In two brief papers in 1955, in consecutive issues of the Proceedings ["Doklady"] of the USSR Academy of Sciences, he established one new genus and four new species for the tyrannosaurids. In his initial paper, he described the 1946 specimen (PIN 551-1), with a skull (were it complete) slightly larger than that of AMNH 5027, as the holotype of the new species Tyrannosaurus bataar (the trivial name derives from the Mongolian for "hero" or "warrior"; Figure 26). The other three taxa were described in his second paper: Tarbosaurus efremovi ("Efremov's frightening lizard") for a nearly complete skeleton about 10-12 meters long (PIN 551-2; Figure 27); Gorgosaurus lancinator ("shredder" or "one who tears to pieces") for a skull and associated fragmentary postcranial remains of an animal about 9 meters long (PIN 553-1; Figure 28); and Gorgosaurus novojilovi (honoring geologist Novozhilov) for an incomplete skull and associated fairly complete skeleton about 6 meters long.  In 1955, Maleev named this species Tarbosaurus bataar.  It was later reclassified as a tyrannosaur.
     Recent studies have determined that T. bataar is differentiated from T. rex by smaller forelimbs (Horner and Lessem, 1993), the angular terminates in front of the surangular fenestra, the surangular fenesta is smaller, and the maxilla ends behind the lachrimal (Carenter, 1992). There have also been no specimens of T. bataar reported outside of Asia. These discoveries resulted in this animal being returned to full generic status.  Tyrannosaur bataar is now Tarbosaurus bataar.  
Species    

    The above studies have also shown that there is a strong possibility that Shanshanosaurus is a juvenile Tarbosaurus, sinking that genus.  There is a possibility that T. bataar can be split further into T. bataar and T. efremovi.  As of today, Only one species of Tarbosaurus, T. bataar, has been officially established.

LINK:http://www.dinosaur-world.com/tyrannosaurs/images/tarbosaurus_bataar.gif



#84    frogfish

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Posted 29 May 2006 - 03:45 PM

Tarbosaurus doesn't exist anymore...It is now called tyrannosaurus bataar...

Tyrannosaurus bataar
Tyrannosaurus bataar
  
user posted image  

Pronounced: tie-Ran-o-Saw-rus bah-tar
Diet: Carnivore (Meat-Eater)
Name Means: "tyrant lizard"
Length: 40 feet (13 m)
Height: 16 feet (5 m)
Weight: 6 tons (6,000 kilos)
Time: Late Cretaceous - 67 MYA    
Location: Northern North America, Central Asia  

  This was a very close relative of Tyrannosaurus rex that lived in China during that Late Cretaceous period. Originally called Tarbosaurus when it was discovered in 1955, it was later renamed Tyrannosaurus bataar after studies and comparisons of the fossils determined that they were from the same family.

This dinosaur is good example of how international cooperation can greatly benefit science, and it also helps to show how genus and species are related. Tyrannosaurus bataar is the same genus, but a different species.

See Tyrannosaurus rex for more information.



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#85    frogfish

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Posted 30 May 2006 - 10:06 PM

Tsintaosaurus
Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus
  
user posted image
  
Pronounced: ching-Dow-o -Saw-rus
Diet: Herbivore (plant eater)
Name Means: "Qingdao Lizard"
Length: 33 feet (10 m)
Height: 13 feet (4 m)
Weight: 3 tons (2,700 kilos)
Time: Late Cretaceous - 80 MYA
Location: Asia  

  This strange duckbill is sometimes called the Unicorn Dinosaur because it had a long horn in the middle of its forehead! It was such a strange looking creature that for years some scientists thought that the horn was a mistake until another of these plant-eating duckbills was found with the same feature. Like other duck-billed dinosaurs, Tsintaosaurus had hundreds of teeth packed closely together to form what is called a dental battery. These were used to grind tough plant fiber into mushy pulp.

Tsintaosaurus has caused no small amount of debate among scientists, partly due to the poor preservation of its skull. The exact position and function of its 'horn' are far from being agreed upon, despite the discovery of two partial skulls and remains of at least four individuals.



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#86    psyche101

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Posted 31 May 2006 - 12:01 AM

Hi all

Hoping that the artwork will continue in here now that the excellent thread on that subject has unfortunately been closed. I was a watcher who did not conttribute (as I had no comparable sources), but enjoyed the selection greatly. Real shame it was closed sad.gif Can't understand that, Werewolf threads and Vampire threads not to mention a few really out there theory threads or silly question threads with major flaming, NP, not enough interest in an educational thread and it is closed down.

If you fellows are not planning to keep posting that very nice artwork, would you mind supplying a link or two from your source sites thumbsup.gif Thanks

Things are what they are. - Me Reality can't be debunked. That's the beauty of it. - Capeo If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. - Sir Isaac Newton Let me repeat the lesson learned from the Sturrock scientific review panel: Pack up your old data and forget it. Ufology needs new data, new cases, new rigorous and scientific methodologies if it hopes ever to get out of its pit. - Ed Stewart Youtube is the last refuge of the ignorant and is more often used for disinformation than genuine research.  There is a REASON for PEER REVIEW... - Chrlzs Nothing is inexplicable, just unexplained. - Dr Who

#87    frogfish

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Posted 31 May 2006 - 01:29 AM

Ahh, I will supplement this thread with some of the artwork from Marshall..

The pictures I were posting was of this artist, psyche: Marshall

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#88    psyche101

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Posted 31 May 2006 - 03:51 AM

Thanks Frogfish thumbsup.gif Top work yes.gif

Things are what they are. - Me Reality can't be debunked. That's the beauty of it. - Capeo If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. - Sir Isaac Newton Let me repeat the lesson learned from the Sturrock scientific review panel: Pack up your old data and forget it. Ufology needs new data, new cases, new rigorous and scientific methodologies if it hopes ever to get out of its pit. - Ed Stewart Youtube is the last refuge of the ignorant and is more often used for disinformation than genuine research.  There is a REASON for PEER REVIEW... - Chrlzs Nothing is inexplicable, just unexplained. - Dr Who

#89    RamboIII

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Posted 31 May 2006 - 03:58 AM

its a pity you have to look all this stuff up before you post it... having real knowledge on the subject would be quite an accomplishment.


#90    psyche101

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Posted 31 May 2006 - 04:13 AM

^ Well, yes and no. We are lucky to have some very talented people here, like Frogfish, who has a very extensive knowledge on the subject and provides facts in a way that is pleasant and interesting to read. Having a passion for the subject makes the writer so much more readable original.gif
In other cases, where like me, one finds this a massively interesting subject, personally, I like reading up on a new subject and then spending some time researching the subject for myself. This place rocks thumbsup.gif Always something new to learn and read. I would have given anything for this sort of resource growing up yes.gif

Although, yes it certainly is an accomplishment to have so much knowledge on hand. I have only massive RESPECT for those that get off their butts and have a go.

Edited by psyche101, 31 May 2006 - 04:15 AM.

Things are what they are. - Me Reality can't be debunked. That's the beauty of it. - Capeo If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. - Sir Isaac Newton Let me repeat the lesson learned from the Sturrock scientific review panel: Pack up your old data and forget it. Ufology needs new data, new cases, new rigorous and scientific methodologies if it hopes ever to get out of its pit. - Ed Stewart Youtube is the last refuge of the ignorant and is more often used for disinformation than genuine research.  There is a REASON for PEER REVIEW... - Chrlzs Nothing is inexplicable, just unexplained. - Dr Who




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