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#16    swj20

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Posted 21 February 2004 - 12:46 AM

Overview.

There appears to have been a Big Bang era, which initiated the expansion
of the universe. This is supported, by many, because of the existance of the
background energy, called the Cosmic Microwave Background. That radiation is  scattered photons that escaped after an opaque era. That era began when neutral atoms formed (called recombination, the first joining of electrons and protons; somewhat of a misnomer).
After recombination, there was a boundary to light; atoms were absorbing or blocking photons.  It lasted until things cooled enough for the first breakout
of light, nearly 300,000 years after the BB. Slowly, there began an era
of reionization, and the universe became more transparent. New stars
and quasars released enough energy to clear the fog of atoms in gas,
Energized atoms, stripped of electrons, become ions, and allow light to pass, without being absorbed. Astronomers are able to detect across time
and space, from the footprints of light, back to the opaque era.

If you read what I mentioned on that, or have heard of it, you know that prior to the existance of matter, there were four seperate forces- strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravity. These gave rise to fields, then a hot soup of quarks, which then cooled. Ions eventually formed, at first helium, the most stable, then hydrogen. Further cooling led to neutral atoms, which allowed some photons to escape the arena. These are present, today, as microwaves.

This was the beginning of a new era, around 300,000 years after the BB.
Light was then free to travel. This energy has since cooled and stretched (redshifted) to become cold microwaves, just a little above absolute zero.
It is called the Cosmic Microwave Background.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ContentMedia/990053_2b.jpg
http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ContentMedia/990053b.jpg

NASA had two missions to study it, COBE and WMAP. COBE discovered not isotropic energy signatures (smooth, homogeneous distribution), but anisotropy. WMAP was sent up to look for the anisotropy.
WMAP is the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

The microwave background was first noticed in the mid 1960s, by Bell Labs.
Then the COBE mission was launched in 1989, and WMAP in 2001.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ContentMedia/Micr...avesGuide_b.jpg

The smooth, yet mixed, distribution of the CMB (cosmic microwave background) is seen clearer, in each study. The blue areas represents the coolest areas of microwaves.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_ig/030644/030644_72.jpg

5 frequency maps were taken, to eliminate contamination MW energy from
Milky Way. They are, L to R, 23GHZ K-band frequency, 33GHZ Ka-band,
41GHZ Q-band, 61GHZ V-band, and 95GHZ W-band.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_ig/030665/030665m.jpg

With Milky Way microwave energy subtracted, revealing 380,000 years after BB.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_ig/020598/02059...598_ilc_640.jpg

Another mission will launch in 2007, by the ESA, called The Planck Observer.
It will get a finer resolution, to enhance the previous studies.

http://www.rssd.esa.int/SA/PLANCK/images/p...Planck_blue.jpg
Pre-WMAP mission file from ESA. No mention of WMAP.
http://www.rssd.esa.int/SA/PLANCK/images/p...ures/planck.pdf

Planck Probe will complement other studies. One issue may be raised, though.
Will finer detail open the door for a new view on the shape of the universe?
The finite, round-type-universe theorists still may not be ruled out.
Some have exotic ideas about a geometry besides the flat-type-universe theory.
Just like the sun has harmonic acoustics, which are measurable, so did
the early universe. Those acoustic waves are mentioned in this next abstract. Some feel the discovery of very large waves, not seen by WMAP,
could imply a finite type, dodecahedral shape to the cosmos (twelve sided).

Planck Probe may tell us something about that.

http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/031...310/0310253.pdf

Temperature fluxes in the earliest light, show the beginning of clumping, which
was gravity pulling matter together, condensing the first stars 200 million years later, then more stars, and finally, galaxies.

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Edited by swj20, 25 February 2004 - 12:56 AM.


#17    swj20

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Posted 21 February 2004 - 06:12 AM

While WMAP captured a picture 380,000 years after the BB, another has seen
further, to an earlier time.

The Cosmic Background Imager, from Cal Tech, was sent to an isolated area, to conduct its survey of the sky.

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pict...hajnantor1.html

It opens at evening, after temperatures drop.

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pict...-frontview.html

But, one day, one of the volcanoes erupted. Not to worry. Its all in the job
of an astronomer.

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pict...res/lascar.html

Image of the Universe at 300,000 years old. The CBI has imaged three patches of sky each about 2 degrees square (four times the diameter of the Moon); this shows one patch. The colors represent the intensity of the radiation, with red indicating cool spots and white hot spots. The flux in intensity is only about 100 microK (100 millionth of one degree Kelvin, 100 times sharper than WMAP). Absolute zero is 2.73 K.
This image, with a resolution of 7 minutes of arc (the moon is ~30), is the most sensitive yet made of the surface of last scattering.  

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pres...s/cbi-image.pdf
http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pres...bi-image-02.pdf

The fluctuations in intensity of the cosmic microwave background are accoustical, and are from sound waves in the early universe, created as the hot plasma oscillated under the force of gravity of dark matter.
http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/02/images/c...-tut-lowres.jpg

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Edited by swj20, 25 February 2004 - 01:07 AM.


#18    swj20

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Posted 21 February 2004 - 11:46 AM

nm

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Edited by swj20, 07 March 2004 - 04:23 PM.


#19    swj20

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Posted 21 February 2004 - 12:24 PM

Jupiter moon, volcanic Io.
http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/files//images/bro...up001211_03.gif
http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/files//images/bro...up001230_01.gif
http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/files//images/bro...se/pia02879.gif

Europa and Callisto
http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/files//images/bro...up001221_01.gif

Ganymede
http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/files//images/bro...up001222_01.gif

View from above Jupiter, Cassini space probe.
http://realserver1.jpl.nasa.gov:8080/ramge...rm?mode=compact

Edited by swj20, 22 February 2004 - 02:28 PM.


#20    swj20

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Posted 21 February 2004 - 02:49 PM

Oil (plateau, 2050), uranium (2050), the lasting miracle of fast-breeder reactors, the Large (2005) and The Very Large Hadron Colliders (2020), the danger of hydrogen release (ozone), the promise of gas rich hydrates (Canada),  magnegas technology, limits in fusion technology.




Edited by swj20, 07 March 2004 - 06:55 PM.


#21    swj20

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Posted 22 February 2004 - 08:04 PM

nm

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Edited by swj20, 07 March 2004 - 04:25 PM.


#22    swj20

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Posted 23 February 2004 - 05:55 PM


http://planetscapes.com/solar/raw/misc/convect1.gif

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Edited by swj20, 07 March 2004 - 06:55 PM.


#23    swj20

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Posted 26 February 2004 - 08:15 AM





Dark Energy Brought Us Where We Are Today

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Edited by swj20, 07 March 2004 - 06:56 PM.


#24    swj20

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Posted 26 February 2004 - 10:12 AM


The Dance


The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud


Chopin's Tarantella, Op. 43.
http://kola.cc.columbia.edu:8080/ramgen/mu...5039/track12.rm

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#25    swj20

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Posted 26 February 2004 - 11:17 AM



Chopin, Berceuse, Op. 57
http://kola.cc.columbia.edu:8080/ramgen/mu...5039/track13.rm


Lullaby. Good Dreams...


http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/IMAGES/MEDIUM/0301833.jpg

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Edited by swj20, 26 February 2004 - 11:23 AM.


#26    swj20

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Posted 28 February 2004 - 06:08 AM

South Wales
September 2003
Unusual event in the sky. Experts disagree as to the nature of the object photographed by a young man taking pictures of his friends.

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#27    Fluffybunny

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  • "Of all the tyrannies that affect mankind, tyranny in religion is the worst."
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Posted 28 February 2004 - 09:23 AM

That reminds me of what the space shuttle looked like when it was burning up in the atmosphere...

Too many people on both sides of the spectrum have fallen into this mentality that a full one half of the country are the enemy for having different beliefs...in a country based on freedom of expression. It is this infighting that allows the focus to be taken away from "we the people" being able to watch, and have control over government corruption and ineptitude that is running rampant in our leadership.

People should be working towards fixing problems, not creating them.

#28    swj20

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Posted 28 February 2004 - 09:28 AM

More peaceful, maybe...

Cool Aurora

http://www.geocities.com/swj20x2/alaska1.h...l?1077967548338

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#29    doomgirl

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Posted 29 February 2004 - 02:08 AM

wow a lot of cool information there, thanks for sharing swj20  grin2.gif  thumbsup.gif

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#30    doomgirl

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Posted 02 March 2004 - 12:24 AM

all this reading is starting to make my head spin  wacko.gif  

thumbsup.gif keep up the good work swj20


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