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Riaan

[Archived]Oera Linda Book and the Great Flood

11,638 posts in this topic

Anyway, we have established, that the etymology Nehalennia => NY-HEL => new light is not a 19th century invention, as Jensma thought, but older than 1711.

I agree.

Btw, using the "Alting" from your screenshot, I found another, somewhat less older old source:

Vaderlandsche historie. Deel 1 - Jan Wagenaar, 1749

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/wage004vade01_01/wage004vade01_01-x1.pdf

And the next is nice:

Helen

fem. proper name, from Fr. Hélène, from L. Helena, from Gk. Helene, fem. proper name, probably fem. of helenos "the bright one."

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=hel&searchmode=none

"New (and) bright" would be something like "neos helenos" in Greek (?).

.

Edited by Abramelin

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I think the high relevance of my post about Ottema was missed.

If he wrote things like this to Over de Linden he may have talked like this too, in meetings of the Genootschap, informally, or who knows where and when.

It may have been a good thing to shut him up.

If only he would have listened to Cornelis and chosen a better translation of that little odd word in the creation myth...

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

I am happy with Alewyn's 2nd edition, but I must admit that I am disappointed that, despite my several posts here about it, he chose to copy the mistake from Ottema that was copied by Sandbach. It might seem to be a tiny detail, but it makes a huge difference.

Alewyn, can you explain?

Otharus,

I can possibly explain best by first referring to my interpretation of the OLB’s creation myth rather than to my translation.

To start with, I have no doubt that the old Fryans had their prejudices and political agendas like anybody else. Fasta, the first Folk Mother or Matriarch after the 2193 BC disaster, had her own agenda. She wanted to make sure that nobody questioned her position or that of the Burgh Maidens or, as I called them in my translation, the “matrons”. As with most politicians, she had to do a bit of “spin” to convince others that she was “the chosen one”.

The OLB tried to create the impression that these pious matrons always worked in the best interest of the nation and they always had all the right answers. In studying the OLB, one come to realize, however, that these women only worked in their own best interest for the most part and in accordance with their own political views and agendas. Most of the Fryans’ setbacks and eventual demise was caused by these women’s narrow-mindedness and self interest. The process was only temporarily halted when Friso arrived on the scene in ca 300 BC.

If you read between the lines, the so-called “divine sanction and fellowship” that Fasta enjoyed, as well as the creation myth was nothing other than her own concoction.

In my second edition on page 86, I tried to explain my view as follows:

"Fasta’s obviously strengthened her own hand by convincing the nation that she enjoyed divine sanction and fellowship:

Upon my servant Fasta I have placed my hopes. Therefore, you must accept her as your Honorary Mother. If you follow my advice, she will hereafter remain my servant as well as all pious matrons who succeed her. Then shall the lamp that I have lighted for you never be extinguished. Its light shall always illuminate your intellect, and you shall always remain as free from foreign domination as the sweet river-water from the salt water of the boundless sea.

She not only established or re-established a corpus of laws under the claimed guidance of Frya, but she also recreated their origins and ancient history:

This stands written on the walls of Fryasburgh in Texland. It also stands in Stavia and in Medeasblik:

“It was Frya’s day, and it was seven times seven years since Fasta was appointed as Folk Mother by Frya’s desire. The burgh of Medeasblik was ready, and a Burgh Matron was chosen. Fasta would light the new lamp and this was done in the presence of all the people, when Frya called from her watch-star so that every one could hear it:

“Fasta, take your stylus and write the things which I may not speak.’

Fasta did as she was told. Thus we, Frya’s children, discovered our earliest history”

You see, I believe that the OLB’s whole creation myth was nothing more than a figment of Fasta’s mind. Despite this “little white lie”, nevertheless, she and her successors always tried to project an image of purity and celibacy. To my mind, therefore, I find Ottema and Sandbach’s translation of the word “odd” to “hatred” or “hate” (“haat” in Afrikaans) to be correct and not the sexual connotation you put to it. (If my recollection of your argument is correct).

Having said all this, I did not loose any sleep over it as the creation myth is obviously not factual.

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heel stone - light stone?

Anyway, I was on another direction and came across this:

LANGUAGE LINK

In the 18th century, historians discovered exciting proof of Phoenician-Celtic ties. An ancient Roman dramatist, Titus Maccius Plautus (died 184 B.C.) wrote a play, the Penulus in which he placed then current Phoenician into the speech of one of his characters. In the 18th century, linguists noticed the great similarity between that Phoenician and the early Irish Celtic language. In the adjacent box is a sample given by historian Thomas Moore's, History of Ireland, showing the connection between these languages. Leading 18th and 19th century scholars, such as Gen. Charles Vallancey, Lord Rosse, and Sir William Betham, also wrote on this subject. Vallancey, for instance, speaks of, 'The great affinity found in many words, nay whole lines and sentences of this speech, between the Punic [Phoenician] and the Irish.' Famed historian, George Rawlinson, added that this and other inscriptions are 'READILY EXPLICABLE, IF HEBREW BE ASSUMED AS THE KEY TO THEM, BUT NOT OTHERWISE.'(Phoenicia, p. 327)

THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE EARLY IRISH-CELTIC AND THE SECOND CENTURY, B.C., HEBREW- PHOENICIAN LANGUAGE, AS SHOWN BY THE PENULUS OF PLAUTUS:

PHOENICIAN OF PLAUTUS:

Byth lym mo thym nociothii nel ech an ti daisc machon

Ys i do iebrim thyfe lyth chy lya chon temlyph ula.

EARLY IRISH-CELTIC:

Beth liom' mo thime nociaithe, niel ach an ti dairie mae coinne

Is i de leabhraim tafach leith, chi lis con teampluibh ulla.

In 1772, General Charles Vallancey, a leading Irish scholar of the day, published his famous work, Essay On The Antiquity Of The Irish Language, Being A Collation Of The Irish With The Punic (Hebrew) Language.-In his opening remarks he states, 'On a collation of the Irish with the Celtic, Punic, Phoenician and Hebrew languages, the strongest affinity, (nay a perfect Identity in very many Words) will appear, it may therefore be deemed a Punic-Celtic compound.' Vallancey continues, 'from the Hebrew proceeded the Phoenician, from the Phoenician, Carthaginian, or Punic was derived the Aeolian, Dorian and Etruscan and from these was formed the Latin ... Of the Roman Saxon capital letters, the Irish use but three, all the others bear a very great resemblance to the primitive Hebrew and Phoenician.' (p. 2-3) Modern language scholars have confirmed that there is a definite connection between the Celtic and Hebrew, as we have shown in our tract, Hebrew And English.

http://www.1335.com/hebrew.html

So, this is saying that Phoenician is very close to Irish/Celtic and postulates that Europe was colonised by many Hebrews, but how about if the Irish/Celtic was more original and it was taken into Phoenicia, because it seems strange that only one language is so close to Phoenician.

I know it does not appear to be OLB language but I've only glanced at it really, with a deeper look it could show similarities.

This next bit says how the Druids were very much like Phoenician preists, just as the OLB says, they were priests from Sidon, who had come into the Gauls basically and controlled them all.

There are many other examples, however, of customs linking the Celtic Druids specifically with Israel. English historian, Williain Borlase, in his Antiquities Of Cornwall (1754) presented many pages of such evidence: Druids worshipped but one God and allowed no graven images, identical to the Hebrews, and in contradistinction with almost all other ancient religions.

Consecration was by sprinkling with blood, as in the Old Testament Hebrew worship. Druid priests were clothed in white, similar to the Hebrew priest's white ephod; sacrificial victims were bled to death, and the blood was collected in basins which served to sprinkle the altars; bulls were sacrificed, and the image of a bull (the heraldic sign of the Hebrew tribe of Ephraim) was carried into war.'While they performed their horrid rites of human sacrifice, the drums and trumpets sounded without intermission, that the cries of the miserable victims might not be heard.' (Compare Jer. 7:31-32, the Hebrew/Phoenician place of human sacrifice was called Tophet, meaning 'the drum'). They prayed with uplifted, hands, examined entrails for necromancy, and held the oak in veneration. The Druids used the magic wand in imitation of Moses' rod, poured libations, sacrificed upon the tops of rocks, investigated truth by lots, anointed rock pillars with oil, and marked out boundaries with stones. (pp. 104-132, 161) In these and so many other distinctive ways, the religious customs of the Celts and Hebrews bear an unmistakable resemblance

The OLB actually appears to be saying Wralda IS the Hebrew God imo, especially all the Biblical type wording.

It's like it all went out, got twisted and mangled and came back in.

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To my mind, therefore, I find Ottema and Sandbach’s translation of the word “odd” to “hatred” or “hate” (“haat” in Afrikaans) to be correct and not the sexual connotation you put to it.

Thank you for your answer, Alewyn.

The word is OD, not ODD, and my interpretation is not necessarily "sexual".

I have argued that the translation into "hatred" is based on Latin, while the word has a very different meaning in Old-Saxon (ancestral inheritance, luck, etc.) and Old-Norse (spirit, life-force).

Now guess what languages are more related to Old-Frisian? Not Latin!

That Ottema insisted in this mistranslation is even more shocking, because Over de Linden (and later his son) pointed out the better translations to him.

OdL also warned Ottema that if you tell your children stories about hate, they will more probably start fighting, while if you tell them about love, they will grow up more lovingly. I will copy and translate that letter when I visit the archives next time.

Also look at the context: something enters the three women, and AFTER THAT they give birth to 12 sons and 12 daughters.

There has to be something seriously wrong with you, if you believe that "hate" can make a woman pregnant (or that the old Frisians educated their children that way).

Having said all this, I did not loose any sleep over it as the creation myth is obviously not factual.

A creation myth defines how people think about the origin of life.

In Ottema's mind, the translation of OD into "hate", resulted in fantasies about white supremacy and the extermination of all coloured peoples.

Here lies the major difference in the minds of Ottema and Over de Linden.

- - - - - -

And I must admit, that it also feels like an insult if you translate the word that is the origin of my family name (as you will understand) with "hate".

Edited by Otharus

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Long ago I posted abut the "Frisia seu De viris rebusque Frisiae" by Martinus Hamconius. I also posted screenshots frpm that book..

But here I found another real copy:

http://books.google.nl/books?id=uvxGAAAAcAAJ&pg=PT3&hl=nl&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=true

And another couple of screenshots (and look at the list of the Frisian 'pantheon') :

post-18246-0-18177200-1328544330_thumb.j

post-18246-0-92593000-1328544349_thumb.j

Stauo/Stavo > Jupiter

Fosta > Mars

Snein > Sol

Harco > Hercules

Holler > Pluto

Freda > Venus

VValdach > Diana

Meda > Medea

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Also look at the context: something enters the three women, and AFTER THAT they give birth to 12 sons and 12 daughters.

There has to be something seriously wrong with you, if you believe that "hate" can make a woman pregnant (or that the old Frisians educated their children that way).

Danish[edit] EtymologyFrom Old Norse oddr.

Noun od c. (singular definite odden, plural indefinite odde)

1.sharp point

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/od

Also 'ord':

Old English EtymologyProto-Germanic *uzdaz, from Proto-Indo-European *wes- (“stab”). Cognates with Middle Dutch ort (Dutch oord), Old High German ort (German Ort), Old Norse oddr (Icelandic oddur, Swedish udd, Danish od).

PronunciationIPA: /ord/

Noun ord m.

1.point (especially of a weapon)

2.point of origin, beginning

3.front; vanguard, chief

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ord#Old_English

Thâ hja blât kêmon spisde Wr.alda hjam mith sina âdama; til thju tha maenneska an him skolde bvnden wêsa. Ring as hja rip wêron krêjon hja früchda aend nochta anda drâma Wr.aldas. Od trâd to-ra binna: aend nw bârdon ek twilif svna aend twilif togathera ek joltid twên. Thêrof send alle maenneska kêmen.

When the last came into existence, Wr-alda breathed his spirit upon her in order that men might be bound to him. As soon as they were full grown they took pleasure and delight in the visions of Wr-alda.

Hatred found its way among them.

They each bore twelve sons and twelve daughters—at every Juul-time a couple. Thence come all mankind.

How does anyone literally translate the sentence?

Od

trad

to-ra

binna

Trad is tricky but I found it on this page as: to drive - I thought it might be 'tried' at first...?

vadásinen

Close: cf. *trád- ‘to drive’ and in some dialects also ‘to hunt’

binna=inside

http://www.koeblergerhard.de/germanistischewoerterbuecher/altfriesischeswoerterbuch/afries-B.pdf

Could even say something like: (the origin/beginning - sharp point) (drove) (to-ra?) (inside)

Describing how one would conceive.

Edited by The Puzzler

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Stauo/Stavo > Jupiter

Fosta > Mars

Snein > Sol

Harco > Hercules

Holler > Pluto

Freda > Venus

VValdach > Diana

Meda > Medea

So, apart from "Medea", the supposed creators hardly used this source...

The word "snein" is still the common Frisian word for "sunday".

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Long ago I posted abut the "Frisia seu De viris rebusque Frisiae" by Martinus Hamconius. I also posted screenshots frpm that book..

But here I found another real copy:

http://books.google.nl/books?id=uvxGAAAAcAAJ&pg=PT3&hl=nl&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=true

And another couple of screenshots (and look at the list of the Frisian 'pantheon') :

post-18246-0-18177200-1328544330_thumb.j

post-18246-0-92593000-1328544349_thumb.j

Stauo/Stavo > Jupiter

Fosta > Mars

Snein > Sol

Harco > Hercules

Holler > Pluto

Freda > Venus

VValdach > Diana

Meda > Medea

.

Cool, lol, I gotta look tomorrow because I can hardly hold my eyes open... :sleepy:

Look forward to checking it out more tomorrow though.

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So, apart from "Medea", the supposed creators hardly used this source...

The word "snein" is still the common Frisian word for "sunday".

Sorry, not done yet:

Commentatio de Druidis occidentalium populorum philosophis multo quam antea - Joannes Georgius Frickius filius,Albertus Frickius, 1744

http://books.google.nl/books?id=troWAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA192&lpg=PA192&dq=%22Holler%22++Pluto++frisia&source=bl&ots=FHCiPCQZj5&sig=JDAHwPIu0z3u2OA7vKMD1DbMH6c&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=gv0vT6S5CoyM-wbJ3JGHDg&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Anyway able to read Latin?

post-18246-0-88844300-1328545802_thumb.j

++++++++

EDIT:

You missed "Fosta" in the list?

And how about this "Occo"?? A druid? It gets weirder every second.

.

Edited by Abramelin

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1.sharp point

...

1.point (especially of a weapon)

2.point of origin, beginning

3.front; vanguard, chief

Interesting, I didn't know those.

... drâma Wr.aldas. Od trâd ...

Please, have a look at the original.

The point should be between DRAMA and WR.ALDA.S.

There is no point between WR.ALDA.S and OD.

Edited by Otharus

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Interesting, I didn't know those.

Please, have a look at the original.

The point should be between DRAMA and WR.ALDA.S.

There is no point between WR.ALDA.S and OD.

I will do that asap in the morning but it does not seem to make sense if Wralda is part of the Od sentence because it leaves the prior sentence with no ending, vision of...what? if not Wralda?

Ring as hja rip wêron krêjon hja früchda aend nochta anda drâma Wr.aldas. Od trâd to-ra binna:

You think it should be: ......nochta anda drama. Wralda's Od trad etc

I will check the original out tomorrow but glad you found the translation of Danish od useful.

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You missed "Fosta" in the list?

No, Fosta is male here, unlike the Roman Vesta.

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You think it should be: ......nochta anda drama. Wralda's Od trad etc

The expression "anda drama" is used more in the OLB; it means "in the(ir) dreams".

Wralda's od = wralda his od.

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No, Fosta is male here, unlike the Roman Vesta.

Yeah, I already told you many 'gods and men' got a sex-change before they were allowed to show up in the OLB.

Well, what about the "Occo" then?

.

Edited by Abramelin

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I see: DRAMA.WR.ALDA.S OD TRAD TORA BINNA

OK, same anyway... (blah blah) nochta anda drama .wraldas sharp point drove ---- inside.

EDIT: in the(ir) dream, interesting.

Edited by The Puzzler

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Posted 2 hours ago on FB by the Lady of the Labyrinth:

In the year 1225 AD Snorri relates how Freyia is the only deity that is still alive and still performing rituals as a blótgyðia, a sacrificial priestess. Many scholars believe that the worship of Freyia was still secretly operating by the time Snorri wrote his book, and that this was what he was referring to. I suspect that this may have to do with the continued existence of “wise women” performing Freyia´s ancient art of seiðr hundreds of years after the conversion. Seiðr – or witchcraft – was an extremely important underlying practice of the Old Norse religion, a fact that is necessary to understand in order to understand the Old Norse myths.

A recent study on witchcraft and magic in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages by Stephen Mitchell shows that the practice of witchcraft happened openly and without fear of prosecution until the end of the 15th century AD.

When Ragnhildr Tregagás in 1324 was persecuted for having (reason unknown) put a spell of impotence on a man by carving runes into the wood of his marriage bed, the only punishment was a forced pilgrimage. Before her court trial, Ragnhildr proudly boasted about her witchcraft, obviously not in any way afraid of being accused of it. (BTW: The spell worked, which was why the man pressed charges!)

Interestingly, the spell involved was recorded in the Old Norse language, which was still spoken until the mid-1400ds, and referred to Göndul – “Magician” – a known name for Freyia [The spell began with "ritt ek ifrá mer Gönduls ondu" – “I carve away from me the pleasures of Freyia” (i.e. the pleasures of love)].

Recordings from Arboga in Sweden during the 15th century give an excellent example of the survival and the sudden rapid decline of wise women in Scandinavia. During the 1460s, we hear of the existence of visa Kadhrin – “wise Catherine”. Eleven years later, in 1471, the same woman is referred to, but this time as galna Kadhrin – “Crazy Catherine”. A change of attitudes had obviously happened, and the first severe trials of witchcraft began after a few decades. Interestingly enough, such trials began for real only after the change to Lutheran Protestantism, when the recital of Catholic prayers could be enough to bring anyone to the stake for whispering spells!

It is also interesting to note that Church illustrations in Scandinavia during the Medieval era frequently show the Devil offering a horn of mead to a witch, a symbol of evil temptations. The horn of mead offered by the Devil could appear to be an attempt to transform the ancient and extremely important (as we will see in chapter VI) Pagan icon of the old goddess of witchcraft who also offers the mead of wisdom and poetry to the initiate. The Church paintings were obviously attempts at changing attitudes towards ancient Pagan practices that were either still practiced clandestinely, or towards the memories of these, turning the ancient symbol of the gift of wisdom into a matter of evil temptation. The existence of the wise women, Snorri´s remark about the continued practice of Freyia as a priestess, and the paintings of the Devil and his drinking horn are all powerful hints that some aspects of the Pagan religion survived in Scandinavia until the witch trials began during the 16th century.

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Well, what about the "Occo" then?

Yes, what about it?

It appears to have been a common name.

Remember Okko van Scharle?

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Yes, what about it?

It appears to have been a common name.

Remember Okko van Scharle?

How many 'gods' or famous 'druids' were called "Occo"? Lol.

Anyway, look at this (I remember I posted it before):

Op een van mijn speurtochten door de vaderlandse mythen en sagen kwam ik een verhaal tegen over de Foste-tempel op Ameland.

"………op Ameland de afgod Foste vereerd werd, en dat Hajo, heer van dat eiland, zijnen tempel ten jare 866 tot een klooster vertimmerde………..

On one of my forays into patriotic myths and legends, I found an article about the "Foste Temple" on Ameland.

"......... on Ameland the demigod Foste was being worshiped, and that Hajo, lord of that island, rebuilt his temple to a monastery in the year 866 ..........."

http://www.nederlandsheidendom.nl/webstek/foste.html

Original source of the quote about Foste/Hajo:

[1] Berg van den L.Ph.C., Proeve van een Kritisch Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Mythologie, 1846

I already said it would be a great idea to read everything this Van den Bergh wrote.

.

Edited by Abramelin

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How many 'gods' or famous 'druids' were called "Occo"?

...

the "Foste Temple" on Ameland.

For believers in one of the vague hoax-theories, these will be seen as possible inspirations for the (19th C.) OLB, while for skeptics, they can be seen as traces of a culture, described in the (older) OLB.

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For believers in one of the vague hoax-theories, these will be seen as possible inspirations for the (19th C.) OLB, while for skeptics, they can be seen as traces of a culture, described in the (older) OLB.

Yeah, and the god Foste became a girl.

So now, suddenly, you turn around and look at this 'Foste' differently.

You might want to read the whole article.

Oh, and the OLB is not proven to be older: the only copy in existence is from the 19th century.

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So now, suddenly, you turn around and look at this 'Foste' differently.

I don't understand what you mean.
Oh, and the OLB is not proven to be older: the only copy in existence is from the 19th century.

It's still not clear how old the paper is.

But even if it would be 19th C. paper, the content can still be older.

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For believers in one of the vague hoax-theories, these will be seen as possible inspirations for the (19th C.) OLB, while for skeptics, they can be seen as traces of a culture, described in the (older) OLB.

One of the characteristics of the OLB is, that it does not pay any attention at all to the Oldfrisian mythology (Fositeland, Stavo, Red Cliff) as described by Ocko Scharlensis and in It aade Friesche terp. In the 19th century these books have been rejected as belonging to the phantastic historiography.

Edited by Knul

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One of the characteristics of the OLB is, that it does not pay any attention at all to the Oldfrisian mythology as described by Ocko Scharlensis and in It aade Friesche terp. In the 19th century these books have been rejected as belonging to the phantastic historiography.

But many of the 'famous characters' in these "phantastic historiographies" show up in the OLB.

It's interesting the "Ocko Scharlensis" may very well have been nothing but a creation by the writer A.C. van Stavoren (1597), and then shows up right at the beginning of the OLB: "Okke, my son".

And according to a 19th century source there appears to have been a famous Frisian 'druid' called "Occo".

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Thank you for your answer, Alewyn.

The word is OD, not ODD, and my interpretation is not necessarily "sexual".

I have argued that the translation into "hatred" is based on Latin, while the word has a very different meaning in Old-Saxon (ancestral inheritance, luck, etc.) and Old-Norse (spirit, life-force).

Now guess what languages are more related to Old-Frisian? Not Latin!

That Ottema insisted in this mistranslation is even more shocking, because Over de Linden (and later his son) pointed out the better translations to him.

OdL also warned Ottema that if you tell your children stories about hate, they will more probably start fighting, while if you tell them about love, they will grow up more lovingly. I will copy and translate that letter when I visit the archives next time.

I don't think that the OdLs was qualified to advise Ottema on the translation. Ottema was, after all, highly regarded as a linguist.

Also look at the context: something enters the three women, and AFTER THAT they give birth to 12 sons and 12 daughters.

Let us look at the sentence again:

“Od trad to-ra binna”

The word “trad” can be translated to mean “enter” which is quite acceptable although it does not really capture the real meaning imo. In Afrikaans we have the word “betree” or “tree (in)” or “tree (binne)”. A direct translation into English would mean to “tread” as in “tread on” or to “walk in(to)”, “step in(to)”, etc.

The sentence could then perhaps be better interpreted to mean something like:

Hate treaded or walked into their lives / hearts”.

The entrance (or penetration – lol) does therefore not imply a physical action but is rather a metaphor or figuratively spoken.

In Ottema's mind, the translation of OD into "hate", resulted in fantasies about white supremacy and the extermination of all coloured peoples.

Ottema translated the whole book and he would have been quite aware that the OLB did not advocate the extermination of people of colour despite his own prejudices, such as there may have been.

There has to be something seriously wrong with you, if you believe that "hate" can make a woman pregnant (or that the old Frisians educated their children that way).

I take it that you are being facetious.

In any event, as I explained, the thought never entered my mind that these earth mothers became pregnant through hatred.

And I must admit, that it also feels like an insult if you translate the word that is the origin of my family name (as you will understand) with "hate".

Sorry if you feel offended but you will understand that that is not my intention. I would, nevertheless, question your assumption that your surname can be linked to “od”. To me this sounds highly unlikely. I am certain that there must be another explanation, but then, you will know better.

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A bit more about this "Occo the Druid" (or was it no one else but the fictive "Ocko Scarlenis"?? ... or even the "Okke" from the beginning of the OLB? "Okke, my son"...) :

Poppo, a Dutchman of the eighth century, wrote De officiis Druidum; and Occo, styled the last of the Frisian Druids, was the author of a similar work. Worth, in 1620, and Frickius of 1744 were engaged on the same subject. It is curious to notice St. Columba addressing God as "My Druid," and elsewhere saying, "My Druid is Christ the Son of God." The Vates were an order known in Irish as Faidh. Some derive Druid from Druthin, the old German for God. The word Druith is applied to a Druidess.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/pag/idr/idr07.htm

http://books.google.nl/books?id=36NErsHyKfgC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=poppo+De+officiis+Druidum&source=bl&ots=TkMhAQydrN&sig=-DbTQMuKW-6di9mOewSksb9hPRc&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=9RwwT4rUG8Wa-waZ5ZSADg&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=poppo%20De%20officiis%20Druidum&f=false

In Martini Hamconii's Frisia seu de viris rebusque Frisia illustribus,

published in 1620, it is set forth that Barco, Pontifex seu Prcefectus

Druidum, who lived in Holland in the fourth century, wrote on the

immortality of the soul, and that another Dutchman, Poppa, " the most

distinguished heathen author of the eighth century," left, along with

other works, the treatises : De officiis Druidum and De ritu sacrificorum.

also that Occo, "a ferocious fellow," the last of the Frisian Druids, wrote

on the doctrines and lives of the chief Druidical priests.

http://digital.nls.uk/early-gaelic-book-collections/pageturner.cfm?id=78950280&mode=transcription

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Edited by Abramelin

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