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Riaan

[Archived]Oera Linda Book and the Great Flood

11,638 posts in this topic

I told you that it is known to be Oldfrisian and gave Hettema's Idioticon Frisicum as a source.

Yet you claim, that it is not in the dictionaries.

Here is a next source: Koebler [...]

Hettema's Idioticon Frisicum is from 1874, and Köbler's Altfriesisches Wörterbuch is from 2003.

My point was (and is) that the word "TÉJA" was not to be found in any Oldfrisian dictionary, when OLB was supposed to have been concocted (that is, before 1867).

Surely, we can find words that are related (I am finding more already), but that is a different story.

My main question is this:

1) Is OLB merely based on knowledge and phantasies that were available in the mid-19th century,

or:

2) Does OLB contain information that can help our current knowledge about language (and history) evolve?

My answer:

1) No, it went way too much against the 19th C. paradigm

2) YES!

Edited by Otharus

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tejawoord.jpg

These varieties can be added on the right side:

τείνω (teino) - greek (origin of tendon and tension!)

to tow - english

tegne - danish, norwegian

ziehen - german

tijgen - (oldfashioned) dutch (past tense: toog, getogen)

tiigje, tije, tsjen - frisian

Oldflemmish, -frisian, -dutch, -german:

tiën, thien, tijen, tia(n), tion, tien, tyen, tihen, tigen, ziohan, zihen

The number of varieties and meanings of this word indicate a very old age.

Edited by Otharus

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You might want to read this too (and I know you already added the word to the picture above):

http://www.etymologiebank.nl/trefwoord/voltooien (to complete, to finish)

"tooien" is then used in the meaning of 'to make'.

Scroll down on that page:

Old Norse: tø̂ja, tŷja, fulltŷja

TEJA could simply be a borrowing from Old Norse. Damn Vikings again.

.

Edited by Abramelin

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You might want to read this too (and I know you already added the word to the picture above):

http://www.etymologiebank.nl/trefwoord/voltooien (to complete, to finish)

"tooien" is then used in the meaning of 'to make'.

Scroll down on that page:

Old Norse: tø̂ja, tŷja, fulltŷja

TEJA could simply be a borrowing from Old Norse.

Thanks, that is interesting, but I think you read to fast:

"De combinatie met on. tø̂ja, tŷja, fulltŷja “helpen” en verder met de woordfamilie van teug (-tooien < *tauchianan) is te verwerpen."

("The combination with Oldnorse tø̂ja, tŷja, fulltŷja "to help" and further with the word-family of teug (-tooien < *tauchianan) should be rejected.")

Edited by Otharus

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Thanks, that is interesting, but I think you read to fast:

"De combinatie met on. tø̂ja, tŷja, fulltŷja “helpen” en verder met de woordfamilie van teug (-tooien < *tauchianan) is te verwerpen."

("The combination with Oldnorse tø̂ja, tŷja, fulltŷja "to help" and further with the word-family of teug (-tooien < *tauchianan) should be rejected.")

That's only when you try to explain "voltooien" (to complete, to finish).

I'll check the online Old Norse dictionary.

+++++++++

EDIT:

helfen (= to help),

bei-n-a, bir-g-ja, dug-a, ef-n-a (1), flyt-ja, fræ-a, g-rei-OE-a, hãg-ja, hjal-p-a,

lÆk-n-a, rei-f-a (2), sinn-a (1), tjõ (2), tjæ-a, t‘-ja (3), tã-ja (1), vei-t-a (1), viOE-

hjalp-a

http://www.koeblergerhard.de/germanistischewoerterbuecher/altnordischeswoerterbuch/nhd-an.pdf

Some letters do not show up properly.

This is better:

post-18246-0-52110300-1333016030_thumb.j

.

Edited by Abramelin

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But ofcourse!!!

Dutch: "touw" = rope

Oldfrisian (Hettema dictionary, 1832):

"Tawa, taauje, bereiden, maken, touwen." (= prepare, make)

OLB versions of "tawa", "touwen" (to make, create, prepare), only used in the context of making laws, rules, morals (ÉWA, SETMA):

[021/24]

HÍR FOLGATH THA ÉWA THÉR THÉR.UT TAVLIKT SEND

[025/07]

SAHWERSA THÉR ÉWA VRWROCHT WRDE. JEFA NÉJA SETMA TAVLIKT

[031/07]

THA ÉWA THÉR THÉRNÉI TAVLIKT SEND

[033/02]

IS THÉR ENG KWÁD DÉN HWÉRVR NÉN ÉWA TAVLIKT SEND

[098/31]

THÉR NE SEND NÉN GODE SETMA JEFTHA HJA MOTON THÉR NÉI TAVLIKT WÉSA

[99/08]

THA ÉWA THÉR HJU TAVLIKT HETH

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OLB versions of "tawa", "touwen" (to make, create, prepare), only used in the context of making laws, rules, morals (ÉWA, SETMA)

LOL!!!!!

This is how Doctor Jensma (2006) explained "TAVLIKT" (p.113):

"van toeflikken, samenflikken = samenflansen, samenlappen; grappig bedoeld"

("from to-flick, flick-together = fudge, botch, patch, jumble; meant to be funny")

GoffeJensma.jpg

Very funny indeed, Professor.

Edited by Otharus

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LOL!!!!!

This is how Doctor Jensma (2006) explained "TAVLIKT" (p.113):

"van toeflikken, samenflikken = samenflansen, samenlappen; grappig bedoeld"

("from to-flick, flick-together = fudge, botch, patch, jumble; meant to be funny")

Very funny indeed, Goffe.

And what do you think of this for TAVLIKT:

Dutch: TOELICHTEN : explain, illustrate, elucidate, exemplify

TAVLIKT >> TOE(ge)LICHT.

+++++++++

EDIT:

As you will have read, there is a TAVLIK in the Old Frisian dictionary: taulik / tawalik / thawlik, and it means 'maked, set'.

BUT... without a -T- at the end!!!

That is what someone with a Dutch (=Hollandish) background would do...

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Concept translation. see: http://rodinbook.nl/olbjongsma.html

CHAPTER VII.

Halbertsma's Lexicon Frisicum.

Early in Halbertsma the plan seems to have occurred to a dictionary of Fries to put together. Convinced of the importance of the Frisian language, as creation of a free and independent people, that his soul had expressed; convinced also of its importance to the science of language, especially for comparison and etymology, he had in 1829 already far implements this plan, given that he could write that, a Latijnsch dictionary hetFriesch which is in the alleged faults of the English, French and Dutch etymologisten will endeavor to provide, in the inlassching a hundred words waiting to (z) ine maatstafje completed to be called.'' 1)

Are,'' ardent desire and hope was that he was five years in this dictionary along with the 3rd part of the Tribute to Gysbert Japiks would end, but he does this wish 'with a heart full of care and melancholy "After all,, hundreds of human design, on the scale of five and twenty years were taken, approached scarcely one to his accomplishment.'' 2). He had a premonition that this might be the lot could be

[87]

these two works? The 3rd part of the tribute was never issued, although in 1830 he wrote to Jacob Grimm, he was busy making ready for the press, and what the Lexicon is concerned, the thousand columns, which were printed when death wegriep him from his work, include only the vocabulary from A to Feer.

Meanwhile he had in this work not lacking incentive. His friend Bosworth in 't particularly repeatedly urges him to not be,'' magnum opus to give and not to wait until it is perfect, because it will never appear. In a letter. March 17, 1838, he even writes that Friesland, the Friesian Encyclopedia of Europe yes Halbertsma demands. He has more than Friesland Johnson for England, Germany and Adelung for Kiliaen for Holland. However, the time being there is nothing of the expense and twenty-two years later, in 1860, also insists Prof. M. de Vries is again strongly, that his dictionary Halbertsma soon 't will give light. 1)

What it is due, that he has delayed so long in publishing? Eekhoff yeast, that,, maatstafje becoming a'',,'' had become standard, "so great that he was long doubted, whether he does that job was up.'' Had Halbertsma own preface to the published section written, he would perhaps have told us the reason. We rely on what his son Dr. Tjalling Halbertsma based on conversations with his father and his own considerations written by him in the preface says, it appears that at least for the first part Eekhoffs guess is correct. Halbertsma wanted all words and all modes of speech, where and when used by Frisians, in his Lexicon together. So not only the words of the Land-Fries, but also those which belong to

[88]

your the North Frisian and East Frisian dialects. Moreover, he wanted all the words, as far as possible, the etymology determine and compare them with corresponding in related languages. Was this in itself already a very large task, for the Land-Friesian tijdroovende came to this the difficulty that he many words from the mouth of the people had opteekenen. Especially when he had left Friesland and was living in Deventer, making him only a few weeks per year in this work could give his material grew very slowly. The help of his brothers and Tjalling Eeltje and some friends, who took office notes made for him, was the object of his stay outside Friesland only partially neutralize. For the Old, North and East Friesian was not this difficulty. Of this, the material already collected, so that he no longer in his Lexicon to handle. The only dictionary, however, that van 't Land-Fries, and this was on Gysbert Japiks Epkema's Lexicon, which, however, only a very small part of the vast field was edited. Yet Dr. doubt. Tjalling Halbertsma have no, or his father had his work complete, as he began early to make it ready for the press. Miscellaneous other scientific work and a busy correspondence were the reason that this already but was delayed. When he finally began, it was the chance to accomplish even quite large, he had offered him to accept help. Type in Office for Halbertsma, that he all the help, even those of his own son, stubbornly refused.

Although he causes above what would become his life's work, not complete, it is also the area appeared to be regarded as the main fruit of his Frisian Studies.

As to the etymology he has given a large place, it is not unserviceable to determine by whom and how he practiced this science will see. To a good etymoloog to be, it is not enough linguistic scholar being; 'scholarship is only the instrument, there is also requisite to genius with this instrument werken.Indien somewhere in the etymology comes to pass analogies to detect distant relations with a view to grasp, and the extreme ends, between which ordinary minds no regular correlation, together with the knots. Now this is the work of genius. " 1)

On the other hand, he criticizes those etymologists who "tremendous transitions of meaning'' assumption, which can not be explained, under the pretext of himself so clear, that no account of need data kept withthe,'' while the real reason is that, the agreement only consented and dark for (their) mind floats and (they) in the maze no sharp signed path (see) to the point of entry to that of the output to come. " Self contrast he has always tried to find that path. ,, As much as possible,'' he says,,, I by no few step beaten. I most stepped forward foot by foot, until I shall base the award of the said word had reached. I've known me all language branches in estimates made, and that meanings of the word uitgekipt, as so many links a chain of meanings formed, leading to the theme to the requested word .... The significance is the form of the word at allernaauwste connected, and while I'm the links of a chain of meanings tied together, at the same time I pointed out earlier forms from which the present has sprung .... In a word, my goal has always been focused there, that my word statements in both respects

[90]

not only experimentally (empirically), but also would be scientific. ' 1)

Although it is undeniable that Halbertsma himself on the slippery ground of etymology, Festen nicht zur method erhoben hat, "2) he was still his predecessors and most of his contemporaries to our country so far ahead that it does not apply the accusation of Jonckbloet:, who has stuck to our word distraction that band (of historical comparison) disturbed, so one might exempts ten Kate.'' 3)

As already noted above, he wanted to give a Lexicon, in which no word was missing, the words'' not indecent. The position that he occupies in relation to these words, follows immediately from linguistics and what we are top of his personality which names. In a letter to Jacob Grimm 4) the. July 3, 1858, he expresses his disapproval about out there that Prof.. de Vries, who at the head of the operation of the Dutch Lexicon is,'' no other words will allow, then in the respectable world calibrated. 5) If we get over the language of the salons, and just unnatural. It will certainly be as beautiful as the crinoline, but a mirror of people's life will not be. " 6) Halbertsma this is so much a loss, that he "two very capable young man (has) persuaded a dictionary of the Dutch voces obscoenae to do." 7)

[91]

Halbertsma belonged in his time, undoubtedly one of the best connoisseurs of the Frisian in all its shades and as such he was the right man to Frisian dictionary to write. That he nevertheless in many respects fallen short in this work is in large part due to the lack of certain characteristics that a lexicographer ought to adorn. His lack of accuracy, to system, his contempt for all kinds of detail work to have the value of his work great prejudice and usability of it is greatly reduced. To what concerns this has led, may appear in more detail below.

1. One of the most prominent is that Halbertsma translation and explanation of words has exclusive use of Latin. This was mainly because he and his Lexicon is primarily a scientific purpose intended. 1) For example, foreign scholars would still the Dutch language have caused a major inconvenience and have formed a barrier to use and appreciate his work. With little difficulty he had also the great mass of the Frisians, who did not understand Latin, can be satisfied by the meaning behind each word in the Netherlands to give, as appears from the MSS. A and B were originally intended.

With Eekhoff is regrettable that, by failing to do so, showed 'not heeding the great development of the desire for language study, which is, especially on his way, in Friesland itself among the unlearned has revealed, and what he ought to satisfy, not the head bumping. " 2)

Dr. Tjalling Halbertsma regrets the reason for the use of Latin not only because this language inevitably made many descriptions, but especially (consider in this context Bopp) 1) to the many errors against the,, Latinitas'' which his father , by studying more with the "barbaric'' than classical Latin came in contact made!

2. A second objection and a that a lexicographer is unforgivable, is the lack of system in more ways than one, which Halbertsma's work demonstrates.

A. In the first place, this out in the placement of the words. The basis for the division he seems to have taken the etymologischen consistency. The root word is given in capital letters and underneath in small letters follow the distractions and the compositions. In column 184, we find for example

Barne, eg. n et a., ardere, urere and below: Barner, Barnich, off-Barne, for-Barne, yn-Barne, Barne-oan, on-Barne, Barne-ut, barn wood, baernd-koarn, barnde- man-baern stien, barnde-wyn, Branje (eg n. et. a ardere, urere), burn (incendium), burn (instrumentum ignis), burn (gladius), fire, Branje (Alimentum foci), burn -byt, burn, letter, fire Dolch, gjirg burn, burn, hake, brant-hleerda, Izer burn, burn mark, burn merkje, nettel burners, fire-ries, burn, nij, brond-rad -gold, morth-fire, night fire, branich, braning, burner (incendiarius), burner (Major et cacabus rudior).

This rather long list does not contain all the words, which Barne related. Column 484 is BRANARK given, including in small letters: fire-fos, burning rod, burner guard, production planning. It is an example of many.

b. Sometimes a diversion only below ground word, sometimes separately and then again in capital letters. Thus, we find AFBARNE in column 31 and afbarne in column 185 under Barne; AFBINE in column 32 and Afbine in column 307; AFBREKKE in column 32, afbrekke in column 503; AFBOYE in column 32, afbuoye in column 542; AFBRINGE in column 33, oafbringe in column 517; AFDELE in column 33, oaddele in column 644; AFDIJE in column 33, afdije in column 650, etc.

In contrast, AFBIDDE or in column 32, are not covered by prayed (241 column data, AFBODJE or in column 32, are not covered by BODJE (column 422); AFBOUWE or in column 32, are not covered by BOUWJE (column 475); AFBORNE or in column 32, not Boarne (column 410). also be AFBRUGJE, AFDOLLE, AFDRAGE, AFDRAYE only mentioned once.

c. Lack of system exhibits Halbertsma, if he also has the same expression for the same word and not the same translation and explanation.

Cf. example AFBARNE (column 31), ex. n et a., comburere, comburi Totus Quantus; the valet aedificiis, mill Dinis, caet. with afbarne (column 185), eg. n. comburi Totus quantum. It is afbarnd hus.

AFBINE (column 32), ex. a fune adstricto demere, F. you. ofbine. The rams afbine, arietes fune adstricto cast strange, with afbine (column 307), eg. a dissolvere. Di redens afbine, dissolvere grallas glaciales a pedibus; on-bine, contraindications, adstringere. Di rams afbine, arietum testes filo canabino piceo vehementer adstringere arescant et ut tandem decidant.

Cf. In this respect, the two other words, referred to under b.

d. That his spelling is not a measure of fasting established, the above examples suffice.

e. Related words from other languages ​​are now

[94]

look at the root word given, then a distraction, sometimes both, and not always with the same completeness.

Example in column I s.v. A. Ee, F. v. aqua, Guatizalema we find them not, but in column 2 sv alond, n. F. v. insula, where Goth. ahwa, Sax. v. aha, LSL. a, F. v. a, ee, Ags. Others, Fr. he stated.

Twice we find them, although not as extensively: in column 10 sv AE, EA, adv, semper, unquam, Ags. ava, semper, contracted a, protinus; Ang. ay, and semper in column 819 s.v. EA unquam, Ags. aa, a, ae supra p. 10, Ang. ay, semper, Gr. aei, AEol. ai, Sax. v. IEO, io, Ie v. ie, Ags. geo, unquam.

Cf. Also AFALDJE (column 31), and aldje (column 82); AFBARNE (column 31), and Barne (column 184); AFBREKKE (column 32), and BREKA (column 501); AFBIDDE (column 32), and prayed (column 241), AFBINE (column 32) and turbine (column 302). AFDRIUWE (column 33), and Driva (column 748).

f. The construction of individual articles does not testify to a fixed plan. The related words example are sometimes at the beginning, sometimes in the middle, at the end sometimes given. The article on AF (column 27 and vlgg.) Is continued in column 53 at AFWRINGE.

3. Besides unsystematic Halbertsma's work, we also noting that he is in naming of related words from other languages ​​is not so fully as he might have been. Although he, like his son in the preface notes, except Nederlandsche mainly Anglo-Saxon and English words for comparison had wanted to argue, so as a result of the close relationship of these languages ​​with the Friesian to prove, show the following examples, all from the first two columns taken , however, that he easily could cite more material.

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Menno, did you use Google Translator or something?

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Menno, did you use Google Translator or something?

LOL, that is, after all, one of his specialisations:

"De auteur studeerde korte tijd klassieke talen aan de Universiteit van Leiden, maar studeerde na zijn diensttijd af in de Slavische Talen, waarbij hij zich specialiseerde in computational linguistics en automatisch vertalen."

http://www.klaaskolijnnet.nl/overdeauteur.html

Automatic translation:

"The author briefly studied classical languages ​​at the University of Leyden, but graduated after his service on the Slavic Languages​​, where he specialized in computational linguistics and machine translation."

Menno%20pasfoto%202008%20%281%29.jpg-for-web-normal.jpg

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All three 19th C. Oldfrisian dictionaries; Wiarda (1786), Hettema (1832) and Richthofen (1840) had TAULIK or TAULIC (man-made, in context of laws).

Weird that Jensma missed that.

Hmmm.. maybe he didn't, and noticed what I also noticed: the extra -T- at the end.

In that case TAVLIK becomes TAVLIKT and then looks a lot like TOE(ge)LICHT, a past participle.

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One of the most important chapters is missing on your site (it only has the footnotes of that chapter):

HOOFDSTUK VI.

HALBERTSMA'S DENKBEELDEN OVER DE VERWANTSCHAP VAN HET FRIESCH EN HET ENGELSCH pag. 74.

(Halbertsma's views upon the kinship of Frisian and English)

I'm sure this chapter will contain more proof against Halbertsma's supposed involvement in the creation of the OLB.

(IMO it's obvious that no 19th C. mortal could have made it.)

Edited by Otharus

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One of the most important chapters is missing on your site (it only has the footnotes of that chapter):

HOOFDSTUK VI.

HALBERTSMA'S DENKBEELDEN OVER DE VERWANTSCHAP VAN HET FRIESCH EN HET ENGELSCH pag. 74.

(Halbertsma's views upon the kinship of Frisian and English)

I'm sure this chapter will contain more proof against Halbertsma's supposed involvement in the creation of the OLB.

(IMO it's obvious that no 19th C. mortal could have made it.)

I remember having quoted from a pdf/paper about exactly that. Let's see if I can find it again.

+++++++

EDIT:

Found it: Post 6230

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=184645&st=6225

I translated part of the pdf in that post, http://dare.uva.nl/document/221756

We are the remnant of a great and famous people that once occupied the North Sea coasts from the river Scheldt to the cape of Jutland. Same place, same name, the same language - though changed by the events of more than 2000 years - up to now in our possession.

The colonists who went out from us spread their language - in fact our language - through all corners of the globe.

He also says that he wants to force the linguists to acknowledge the fact that Frisian is one of the oldest branches of Germanic, and that it is the most far spread out language all over the world; actually he means the English language which he considers a direct offshoot of Frisian.

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Otharus, it's on Knul's webpage (HOOFDSTUK VI, and so on), but you have to scroll a long way down.

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Otharus, it's on Knul's webpage (HOOFDSTUK VI, and so on), but you have to scroll a long way down.

Now I see; every chapter is followed by its footnotes.

In the chapter-parts the pagenumbers should be added, otherwise the footnotes are worthless, because they refer to the pagenumbers.

Thanks Knul, for your efforts of adding several relevant sources to the web.

Just stop accusing me of lying when you don't agree or don't understand.

Edited by Otharus

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Sorry to butt in, just wanted to add this bit of info about Homer in the Baltic to rejog the idea that Greek, Roman and many other cultures of the Mediterranean were influenced and settled by Scandinavians...

For years scholars have debated the incongruities in Homers Iliad and Odyssey, finding the authors descriptions at odds with the geography he purportedly describes. Inspired by Plutarchs remark that Calypsos island home was only five days sail from Britain, Felice Vinci convincingly argues that Homers epic tales originated not in the Mediterranean, but in northern Europes Baltic Sea.

Using meticulous geographical analysis, Vinci shows that many Homeric places, such as Troy and Ithaca, can be identified in the geographic landscape of the Baltic. He explains how the cool, foggy weather described by Ulysses matches that of northern climes rather than the sunny, warm Mediterranean and Aegean, and how battles lasting through the night would easily have been possible in the long days of the Baltic summer. Vincis meteorological analysis reveals how the climatic optimum--a long period of weather that resulted in a much milder northern Europe--declined and thus caused the blond seafarers of the Baltic to migrate south to warmer climates, where they rebuilt their original world in the Mediterranean. Through many generations the memory of the heroic age and the feats performed by their ancestors in their lost homeland was preserved and handed down, ultimately to be codified by Homer as the Iliad and the Odyssey.

In The Baltic Origins of Homers Epic Tales, Felice Vinci offers a key to open many doors, allowing us to consider from a new perspective the age-old question of the Indo-European diaspora and the origin not only of Greek civilization, but of Western civilization as a whole.

http://www.amazon.com/Baltic-Origins-Homers-Epic-Tales/dp/1594770522

Has anyone here read it?

Edited by The Puzzler

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Vinci’s meteorological analysis reveals how the “climatic optimum”--a long period of weather that resulted in a much milder northern Europe--declined and thus caused the blond seafarers of the Baltic to migrate south to warmer climates, where they rebuilt their original world in the Mediterranean. Through many generations the memory of the heroic age and the feats performed by their ancestors in their lost homeland was preserved and handed down, ultimately to be codified by Homer as the Iliad and the Odyssey.

Has anyone here read it?

I'd love to read it.

The bits that have been posted here make a lot of sense, IMO.

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Now I see; every chapter is followed by its footnotes.

In the chapter-parts the pagenumbers should be added, otherwise the footnotes are worthless, because they refer to the pagenumbers.

Thanks Knul, for your efforts of adding several relevant sources to the web.

Just stop accusing me of lying when you don't agree or don't understand.

Page numbers will be added soon.

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All three 19th C. Oldfrisian dictionaries; Wiarda (1786), Hettema (1832) and Richthofen (1840) had TAULIK or TAULIC (man-made, in context of laws).

Weird that Jensma missed that.

Koebler: tõu-lik, afries., Adj.: nhd. gemacht, gesetzt; ne. maked, set (Adj.); Q.: W; E.: s. tõw-a, -lik (3); L.: Hh 108b, Rh 1065a; Son.: nach Hoffmann 176 ist der Ansatz eine Nebenform von thâwlik

tâw-a 1 und häufiger?, afries., sw. V. (1): nhd. machen; ne. make (V.); E.: s. germ. *tawÐn, *tawÚn, sw. V., von statten gehen, gelingen; vgl. idg. *deu- (2), V., Adj., verehren, gewähren, ehrwürdig, mächtig, Pokorny 218; L.: Hh 109a

Edited by Knul

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concept text. s. http://rodinbook.nl/olbjongsma.html

CHAPTER VI.

Halbertsma's ideas about the relationship of the Frisian and English.

In 1836 appeared in London by Dr. J. Bosworth a work whose full title was: The Origin of the Germanic end Scandinavian Languages, and Nations: with a sketch of Their Literature, and short chronological specimens of the Anglo-saxon, Friesic, Flemish, Dutch, the German from the Moeso -Goths, to the present time, the Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: tracing the progress of thesis languages, and Their connexion witb the Anglo-Saxon and the English present.

Originally intended to form part of the introduction to the Anglo-saxon Dictionary of the same writer, which was published in 1838, it became, as it in the opinion of the author to set limits exceeded, separate uitgegeven.Onder the title Ancient and Modern Friesic compared with Anglo-Saxon wrote on Halbertsma this honorable invitation of Bosworth a chapter on the Fries. The piece is made in English, a language which he, as he announced, had no education. A vague sense of the analogy between the English and his native language, Fries, led him to write. Compared with the MS., 1) shows the piece several changes, presumably because Dr. Bosworth was forced to work at all, on behalf of the many errors that Halbertsma in spelling, grammar and idiom made against the English. Although here and there shortened, the business remained unchanged. According to the end of the message for 1) in the MS. and communication of Bosworth was in two pieces of his intention to follow, the first would deal with 'the sound of Anglo-saxon Each Letter "and the second on' the practical application of the rules relative to the preceding vowels diphthongs and consonants.'' 2)

The title of the published piece covers only a portion of the content. Better is that which in the MS. songs, namely: Principles of Anglo Saxon pronunciation, Founded on the history of the language, and proportions to its kindred tongues. Undoubtedly Halbertsma this title meant for his treatise, because above a table of contents, which he in the preface of the MS. gives, as he placed shorten title Anglo Saxon pronunciation. As the title, under which the first piece appeared in the MS. all times does not occur, it is not unlikely that it is chosen by Bosworth, as more in line with that of the whole.

In the preface 2) indicates Halbertsma have realized why he was in a treatise on Anglo-Saxon pronunciation of the relationship of the Frisian and the Anglo-Saxon treats. Ln comparing kindred languages ​​with eachother, "he says," the scholar will gene rally starts trom the point where he was born. Rask Usually refers the A.-S. to the Scandinavian tongues, Especially to the Icelandic. Germans have chiefly to recoursc theTheotisc, and what is called by them Saxon. Others want to bring it back to the Dialects of Their Country, all with the aim of elucidating the Same Grammer, or Discovering the sounds in A.-S. The reason or this is evidently the intimate acquaintance Each of them has with the old and modern Dialects or his own country, and most likely the scholar would compare the A.-S. with another class or Dialects, if all the tongues of the Germanic branch axis were thoroughly known to him or his ashes Those native country. Being a native Friesian, and comparing the A.-S. chiefly with Friesic the, scarcely I Could Escape the suspicion or HAVING yielded to The Same influence as others, LF I did not explain my Reasons. This, I hope, will be sufficient is a excuse for my boarding into some details about the primitive relationship Between the Anglo-Saxons 1) and the Friesians.''

There is the treatment of the relationship between the Frisian and the Anglo-Saxon become an integral part is the whole piece, it is desirable in brief the course of Halbertsma's argument to indicate to the point where he with this treatment.

The Anglo-Saxon is a dead language. To determine the verdict, we must rely on the written letters. However, it is very difficult to determine which sounds they denote, for between visible signs and audible sounds are not related. Moreover, in general the 'sounds of letters'' in rustelopze swing. They modify, while the letters themselves remain unchanged. If language of a free people is rich in Anglo-Saxon dialects. This explains the differences (discrepancies) in the forms of the same words, on almost every page of an Anglo-Saxon writer avoided. Since he does not write according to fixed rules, but just as he speaks, his writing is the faithful reflection of his dialect. This diversity is compounded by the diphthongischen nature of the whole Anglo-Saxon vowel system, which makes it very difficult for a writer to determine what sounds the letters he will swap voorstellen.Dikwijls he related vowels in the same word, sometimes bv using a, then ae sometimes y, then eo. If one of the means in order to determine the pronunciation, this diversity, however, of great importance. Moreover, we possess two means to achieve this goal, get well, first, the comparison of the vowels and consonants of the Anglo-Saxon with a related dialect of an earlier period and, second, the same comparison with a related dialect vanishes. For the first may be the Gothic, the second for the Fries. Then follows an enumeration of the advantages which the Gothic features as the standard of comparison for the Anglo-Saxon in particular and the Germanic languages ​​in general and then goes on to Halbertsma discussion of the Fries. In the table below, I follow him on foot, omitting those parts that are not on the subject.

The Frisian literature of much of later date than the Anglo-Saxon, but the development of a language depends not always on her age. 1)

Thanks to the geographical position of the area of ​​the Frisians, their language has no other influence than that undergone by the Saxon: a homogeneous language with theirs. Strange inmengselen are only introduced by the repeated incursions of the Normans. Removals have never disturbed the natural development. Consequently, the Frisian language remained stationary so that one may assume that in the 12th century had changed less than other Germanic languages ​​in the 10th century.

Anglo-Saxon sounds really blooming now in Friesland and, more importantly, the development of some vowels has the same outcome as eight centuries ago, a convincing proof that the germ of both languages ​​should be homogeneous. Where such striking similarities after a separation of nearly fourteen centuries by the sea, with various vicissitudes, livelihoods and homes, we can conclude that about the middle of 5th century, when they still were united, the Anglo-Saxon is not than by minor dialectical differences distinguished the Fries. The differences that exist between the oldest Anglo-Saxon literature from the 8th and 9th centuries the Friesian and the 12th and 13th, caused by the changes that both languages ​​in the intervening period have undergone.

All this can be proved by careful comparison, so it is not necessary to rely on authoritative writers. Should anyone consider this desirable, then the testimony of Francis Junius ample, after thorough study of the whole Germanic language has always declared that the Friesian with the Anglo-Saxon was most closely related.

The geographical position of the Anglo-Frisians corresponds to the location of their language in the family of Germanic languages ​​1)

Around 325 BC, had Guttones or Goth Jutland as a residence. 1) why they left their brethren on the banks of the Vistula, where the headquarters of their race. After a portion had crossed to Scandinavia, attracted the great mass of the Goths southwards to the Danube.

South of the Goths lived on Jutland the Angles, whose area is in south maybe stretching the Eider. 2) Westward of this people, that almost healed the Chersonesus Cimbricus (sic) filled, were related to the Frisians, in a continuous row along the whole coast to the mouth of the Scheldt lived. In two places was broken early this row, however, by the Chauci minores Chauci majors and 3) who respectively settled between Ems and

Between Weser and Elbe and Weser, and by the Saxons, who healed the vastness country between the northern bank of the Elbe and the Angles took possession. Hence, there were two divisions Frisians: the southern section between the mouth of the Weser and the mouth of the Scheldt, and the northern portion of the western beach of Schleswig to the mouth of the Elbe. The latter, much smaller than the first, is called Frisia Minor. 1)

The adventurers who crossed into Britain, to be called Anglo-Saxons. Historians have given this name because even called themselves Angles or Saxons. After the Goths had evacuated the Chersonesus Cimbricus, their place was taken by settlers from the neighboring Angles, Jutes later. The Jutes were together with the Angles and the Frisians so much in power and outnumbered by the southern resident Saxony, they were regarded by foreigners as divisions of this people. Since the Angles in the expeditions to Britain, however, played a leading role, the historians have not identified the emigrants by the name Saxons alone, but with the Anglo-Saxons.

The question whether the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians, Jutes also accompanied on their trips, should probably be answered in the affirmative. 1)

A proof of the close relationship between Frisian and Anglo-Saxon, this is not. On the contrary, numerous similarities between the two languages ​​exist independently, and how the divorce has been more perfect, the clearer it is, that the basis of these agreements already in place must have been for the emigration.

Although Bede mentions the Frisians not in his list of tribes that inhabited Britain, but on the other hand, Procopius mentions they do and omit the Saxons. 2)

The following reasons argue for it, that many Frisians have connected to the settlers: (1) the leaders of the Anglo-Saxons wore names that are still in use in the Friesland, although somewhat modified by time and shortened. (2) the manner in which Rowen, the daughter of Hengist, King Vortigern welcomed, leaving aside whether this history by Geoffrey of Monmouth told is truthful or not, was the way in which people in Friesland each welcomed and shape of the English Wassail-cup is the same as that of the silver bowl: the Frisians at weddings where the guests brandy with raisins offer. (3) the Saxon Chronicle in AD 897, especially some Frisians, under King Alfred against the Danes fought. It would also not be surprising that the Frisians or were ignited by the universal urge to move, or by famine or raids, being forced.

Regarding the state in which the Anglo-Saxon has reached us, it is necessary to note that the common fate of all the MSS. of the Middle Ages was that they were modernized and so corrupted, as the writer on the language of the MS. understand.

It was to him the meaning of words to do and not to the language. Only the ignorance of the copyist gave some guarantee that he literally wrote about. As much as this for the Anglo-Saxon is, is proved by the famous Caedmon's Hymn of Wanley (in Cod. MSS. Episcopi Norwicensis) of year 737, comparable to the West Saxon translation of Alfred of about 875 (ed. Thorpe, Caedmon's Metrical Paraphrase in Anglo-saxon, with an English translation, notes and a verbal index, London, 1832).

When one says the same words written in different centuries, for itself, one can examine the changes that the language in the period lying between the two texts has undergone. 1)

So a precise comparison of Friesian and Anelsaksisch, which are closely related, as claiming, Halbertsma goes on, has never been tested before, mainly because the material is missed, partly because some people did not understand the importance of comparison. So here's a brief overview of the material used for this purpose.

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The written part is formed by:

1. Asega the-buck, which contains the laws of the Frisians Rustringer (1212-1250);

2. the Littera Brocmannorum, the written law of the Brocmannen (1276-1340);

3. the Amesga-riucht, Code of the area of ​​the Ems (1276-1313);

4. the Keran jon Hunesgena londe, the statutes Hunsingo, revised and improved in 1252, but many of them early origin;

5. Yeld and Botha, the value of money in various parts of Friesland and the fines that were imposed (1276);

6. Old Frisian laws, edited by P. Wierdsma and P. Brantsma, in 1782, mainly applicable to the present province of Friesland;

7. Collection of charters, distributed in Story City Leeuwaarden, described by Simon Abbes Gabbema.

The spoken part in the same order from the North to the South given, consists of:

1. North Frisian: N. Outzen which has given a glossary, partly printed;

2. of the East Friesian Saterland;

3. Land-Friesian 1) in the present province of Friesland and the Schiermonnikoogsch Hindeloopersch.

From the Asega-Bok, the Littera Brocmannorum, the Amesga-riucht and Keran Hunesgena fon-londe examples, with so literally 2) possible translation into English next to it. From the Old Frisian laws a translation given in the Country Fries and English. Repeatedly, in addition

[84]

all these documents refer to the Anglo-Saxon. The comparison is thus continued by some verses of the Countess of Blessington from the Book of Beauty of 1834 translated into the Country Fries, a poem by Gysbert Japiks (Fries in approximately 1650) in English and a poem in Hindelooper an almanac for mariners in the same language.

In this way, the analogy between Frisian and English demonstrated, which shows that among 1200 English words only 50 are used which are not of Germanic origin Chen. Among the 125 words that are enclosed between brackets in the statement when the related English word in meaning with the corresponding Fries are also 50 non-Germanic origin Chen. At a total of 1325 words, there are therefore only 100 foreign.

There really English words largely of Angelsaksischen originate, close agreement between Frisian and English course agreement between Frisian and Anglo-Saxon in.

It follows that the Frisian language is absolutely indispensable for determining the pronunciation of the Anglo-Saxon, as far as now possible and that the scholars are an important source of have missed by not paying attention to the Fries.

Since about the close relationship between Frisians and English no longer any doubt, and many even go out of an Anglo-Frisian folk community, 1) whose language can be reconstructed, I can suffice with some remarks on the method, which

[85]

Halbertsma follows to prove their kinship.

In the preface he gives some clues about when he says:,, As Often history fairs in showing the full truth of my opinion about The relationship between the Angles and the Friesians, I had recourse to the languages. Hence a view of the remnants of the Friesic Both dead and Flourishing is still present here, and compared with the English and A.-S. It pleases not the muse of history to speak but late, and then in a very confused Manner. Yes, Often she deceives, and before she has come to maturity, Seldom Distinctly she tells the truth.

Language never deceives, but speaks mort distinction, though removed to a far higher antiquity. 1)

Halbertsma's arguments are not primarily derived from the agreement in language, although he also other grounds, in 't particularly geographischen historischen and nature, not neglect. Because of the uncertainty that still prevails about the old residence of the conquerors of Britain, the geographical mean little, while the historical data utterly incomplete and contradictory. Rightly thus he puts the emphasis on language in the agreement. 2) It may, however, strongly doubted whether Halbertsma is entitled under the contract only a small part of the vocabulary to decide on the close relationship that he wanted to prove. Had he focused on the analog sound development in the two languages ​​to show, he was certainly more valid grounds for its conclusion.

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I'd love to read it.

The bits that have been posted here make a lot of sense, IMO.

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=184645&st=3270&p=3800069entry3800069

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=184645&st=3300

And this Vinci thinks Odysseus was Dutch... I am afraid he based that partly on Odysseus other name, Ulysses.

Ulysses > Vlysses > Vlissingen (= city in the province of Zeeland). Vlissingen could be written as Vlisses' hem or the home of Ulysses. This wordplay is what many before Vinci have done (de Grave, Gideon, Wilkens)

I would also love to see the reference/lierature list in his book. Just to check if the OLB is in it too.

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Page numbers will be added soon.

Thanks.

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