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me-wonders

ethnicity

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World English Dictionary ethnic or ethnical (ˈɛθnɪk) dictionary_questionbutton_default.gifadj 1. relating to or characteristic of a human group having racial, religious, linguistic, and certain other traits in common 2. relating to the classification of mankind into groups, esp on the basis of racial characteristics 3. denoting or deriving from the cultural traditions of a group of people: the ethnic dances of Slovakia 4. characteristic of another culture: the ethnic look ; ethnic food n 5. chiefly ( US ), ( Austral ) a member of an ethnic group, esp a minority group [C14 (in the senses: heathen, Gentile): from Late Latin ethnicus, from Greek ethnikos, from ethnos race] usage Referring to a person as an ethnic is broadly acceptable in the US, Australia and Canada, but could well cause offence in the UK and elsewhere

Are genetic studies supporting or destroying our perception of ethnicity?

I am light skinned and one of my great grand children is dark skinned. What is his ethnicity or race?

If a child has Mexican parents but grew up in the US states, what is this child's ethnicity?

What makes a person a citizen of a country, and what prevents a person from a citizen?

How does a person become a Jew, a Christian, a Muslim, a Buddhist?

How does a person become a motor cycle mechanic, or a plumber or a bio scientist or a banker? How different are professions from ethnicity?

Are we nuts?

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Let's get crackin', I think we're all nuts.

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Are you asking this out of concern that your great grandchild won't identify with the lighter side of it's heritage?

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Are genetic studies supporting or destroying our perception of ethnicity?

Are you sure this is the right forum? Shouldn't it belong to a science sub-forum? Anyways, physical anthropology and genetic research has become more exacting as are most sciences. Forensic anthropologists routinely are called to discern race in criminal cases. Note that many of these cases only involve dentition or skeletal remains so skin colour is irrelevant. Skin colour is the least informative clue in discerning race.

Again, I don't think this is a philosophical or psychological question thus this thread should be moved to a science forum where we could discuss haplogroups and current research.

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Ethnicity has to do with identifying with a certain ethnic group. For example, my friends heritage is Mexican and Italian, however, he was born and raised in the United States and identifies as an American, not Mexican or Italian. Ethnicity can be based on heritage or on another common trait that is shared with a group of people.

Race does not exist. At all. It's unscientific and is just a out dated Victorian era ideal.

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Ethnicity has to do with identifying with a certain ethnic group. For example, my friends heritage is Mexican and Italian, however, he was born and raised in the United States and identifies as an American, not Mexican or Italian. Ethnicity can be based on heritage or on another common trait that is shared with a group of people.

Race does not exist. At all. It's unscientific and is just a out dated Victorian era ideal.

My great grandson is dark skinned. This happened because my granddaughter felt rejected by White class mates. We knew native American blood runs in the family line, but it never occurred to me she was a person of color, until this became an issue in school. Because it did become an issue, she gravitates to Mexicans and Black people. Is it clear this is not just an individual choice, but the result of being perceived as a person of color although her family is White skinned? Consciousness of race may be an outdated idea, but we treat people differently, depending on how we perceive their position in society as one of us or not one of us.

A friend of mine gave birth to a dark skinned child many years ago, and his race was recorded as Black. She objected to this, because she is White and this is her son. By what arbitrary authority does someone have the right to label the race of a child, depending on the color of a child's skin? Yet we do this, and regardless of the race of the parents, the child is labeled by the color of his/her skin.

This is a philosophical and a social issue, because it is about how live together and how we treat each other, and how we justify what we do.

Is your friend accepted as a US citizen? Being mindful that Mexico and all of south America are American. Does this person face challenges based on physical traits? What of the children with Mexican parents who are not accepted as US citizens? Recently a young man drove away from police, because his family is illegal immigrants, and he was afraid of what would happen to his family if he engaged with the police. The police followed and this lead to the young man driving fast and hitting someone with his car. He is now in jail waiting trail for man slaughter. This is a tragedy and my question is not a scientific one. It is a social one.

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Are you asking this out of concern that your great grandchild won't identify with the lighter side of it's heritage?

I may have answered your question in the post above? My granddaughter identifies with her White family and with being a person of color. I have no fear regarding this matter, except for concern about how they will be treated. We still live with prejudice, and will genetic research make this more of a problem or less of a problem. Personally I do not think we are being logical about race. We should at least use terms for mixed races. This is slowly beginning to happen, and we need to work on this.

Also, I feel strongly that when a child is raised in the US and this is the only culture the child has experienced, this child should be considered a citizen. I think denying these young people citizenship is a terrible thing. On the other hand accepting people as citizens when they are not part of this culture doesn't make much sense either. I think we should do more to teach our culture to those who want to be part of it. The priority purpose of public education was prepare our young for citizenship. We stopped doing this when we began preparing everyone for a technological society with unknown values, and left moral training to the church. This technological education is not a complete education and is lacking in a serious way.

Edited by me-wonders

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My great grandson is dark skinned. This happened because my granddaughter felt rejected by White class mates. We knew native American blood runs in the family line, but it never occurred to me she was a person of color, until this became an issue in school. Because it did become an issue, she gravitates to Mexicans and Black people. Is it clear this is not just an individual choice, but the result of being perceived as a person of color although her family is White skinned? Consciousness of race may be an outdated idea, but we treat people differently, depending on how we perceive their position in society as one of us or not one of us.

A friend of mine gave birth to a dark skinned child many years ago, and his race was recorded as Black. She objected to this, because she is White and this is her son. By what arbitrary authority does someone have the right to label the race of a child, depending on the color of a child's skin? Yet we do this, and regardless of the race of the parents, the child is labeled by the color of his/her skin.

This is a philosophical and a social issue, because it is about how live together and how we treat each other, and how we justify what we do.

Is your friend accepted as a US citizen? Being mindful that Mexico and all of south America are American. Does this person face challenges based on physical traits? What of the children with Mexican parents who are not accepted as US citizens? Recently a young man drove away from police, because his family is illegal immigrants, and he was afraid of what would happen to his family if he engaged with the police. The police followed and this lead to the young man driving fast and hitting someone with his car. He is now in jail waiting trail for man slaughter. This is a tragedy and my question is not a scientific one. It is a social one.

There is a social stigma in the US with being anything other than white. It's ingrained in our puritanical culture, and it's wrong. Sadly, nothing short of a massive cultural change will do anything. Thankfully, most of these idiotic ideas are falling away generation after generation.

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There is a social stigma in the US with being anything other than white. It's ingrained in our puritanical culture, and it's wrong. Sadly, nothing short of a massive cultural change will do anything. Thankfully, most of these idiotic ideas are falling away generation after generation.

Very slowly depending on what state you live in

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Very slowly depending on what state you live in

Or not at all in rural southern areas.

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By what arbitrary authority does someone have the right to label the race of a child, depending on the color of a child's skin?

By Acts of Parliament and Acts of Congress. In the U.S.A. you need to prove a 50% "blood quantum" to establish Native ancestry, in Canada it's 25%. Again, skin colour has nothing to do with.

This is a philosophical and a social issue, because it is about how live together and how we treat each other, and how we justify what we do.

You don't fight racism by denying the existence of race.

Is your friend accepted as a US citizen? Being mindful that Mexico and all of south America are American. Does this person face challenges based on physical traits? What of the children with Mexican parents who are not accepted as US citizens? Recently a young man drove away from police, because his family is illegal immigrants, and he was afraid of what would happen to his family if he engaged with the police. The police followed and this lead to the young man driving fast and hitting someone with his car. He is now in jail waiting trail for man slaughter. This is a tragedy and my question is not a scientific one. It is a social one.

Yes, it's a tragedy that so many illegal immigrants are desperate to flee from their dysfunctional countries to the U.S.A. such that it endangers their children and undermines their future. This is indeed a social issue, it is however not a philosophical or psychological debate. I maintain that this thread is in the wrong forum.

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To the original question who or what determines race?, this is not a psychological or philosophical question, it's a scientific one. Here's an answer from a forensic anthropologist who routinely discerns race in courts of law.

"The bony traits of the nose, mouth, femur, and cranium are just as revealing to a good osteologist as skin color, hair form, nose form, and lips to the perceptive observer of living humanity. I have been able to prove to myself over the years, in actual legal cases, that I am more accurate at assessing race from skeletal remains than from looking at living people standing before me. So those of us in forensic anthropology know that the skeleton reflects race, whether "real" or not, just as well if not better than superficial soft tissue does. The idea that race is "only skin deep" is simply not true, as any experienced forensic anthropologist will affirm." (emphasis mine)

http://www.cabrillo....smith/gill.html

Maybe I'm wrong. If so, please explain what branch of philosophy or psychology determines race differences?

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Ethnicity has to do with food, music, speech, and costume.

Racial perceptions exist even if race does not exist as a biological concept.

Genetic studies cannot destroy ethnicity.

Ethnicity takes more than two parents to instill but a whole community.

If your parents are immigrants, but you are not, your ethnicity will be of those who you grow up around more than your parents even if it is not as clear cut as that.

If your parents are immigrants, but you are not, your ethnicity might be the same as your parents if you are in a community of immigrants who can reinforce that ethnicity.

As far as what scientists believe, Dr. Gill, as quoted by redhen, is in the minority within his field. Most believe race is a social construct.

Edited by I believe you

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Ethnicity has to do with food, music, speech, and costume.

Ok, I'm not going to play equivocation all day, but from your working definition of ethnicity, what you really mean is culture. Thank you for your elucidation.

As far as what scientists believe, Dr. Gill, as quoted by redhen, is in the minority within his field. Most believe race is a social construct.

Not so. From the same article; "Slightly over half of all biological/physical anthropologists today believe in the traditional view that human races are biologically valid and real. Furthermore, they tend to see nothing wrong in defining and naming the different populations of Homo sapiens"

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By Acts of Parliament and Acts of Congress. In the U.S.A. you need to prove a 50% "blood quantum" to establish Native ancestry, in Canada it's 25%. Again, skin colour has nothing to do with.

You don't fight racism by denying the existence of race.

Yes, it's a tragedy that so many illegal immigrants are desperate to flee from their dysfunctional countries to the U.S.A. such that it endangers their children and undermines their future. This is indeed a social issue, it is however not a philosophical or psychological debate. I maintain that this thread is in the wrong forum.

Hum I thought questions of logic were philosophical in nature? And if a child is 3/4 White and 1/4 Black, what is the logic of determining the child's race is Black. The formula for determining if a child is a native American is better than that.

How well diverse people get along is sociology, politics, philosophical and psychological isn't it? How does it feel to be Black living under White domination, and what of the morals of this domination? How we justify these things is not pure science. And the discrimination is not one sided. I attended a meeting of Black people with another White friend, and I assure you, no one in the room accepted as Black people, as they discussed things like how to announce a celebration with free food, without attracting White people. How to increase the number of Black bankers who would favor loans for Black people. I was blown away by the prejudice and discrimination in that room, and being told a park where I rarely see a Black person and has a cabin of the first White man who settled here, is the Black people's park. Really, when did that happen? This was going on at school that announced this to be a zone free of discrimination. What I am questioning is not if the dark shinned people in my family will reject their whiteness, but how are we going to get along a society that is deeply troubled by racism. I have had to deal with the hatred of Black and do not live in denial of it, and am aware of the prejudice that has caused this problem. How do we united diverse people and live in harmony?

What is that makes a person one of us? If this is the only culture a person has known, might this make the person one of us? If we can not see this with Mexicans, how about Africans? How well would a person of African decent who grew up in the US, do in the African country of his parents? Humans become what they learn to become, and when someone learns to be one of us, I say this person is one of us. The other side of this, my son married a woman with 4 children. I began by treating them just like my other grandchildren, but they are not like my other grandchildren, and they accept me as my son's mother, but not as a grandmother they are bonded with. They are different in ways, I do not feel comfortable with them. However, my son had a daughter with this woman, and I care for her one or two days a week, and we are bonded. I really think this discussion needs to be a broad one, questioning human nature and morals and even social expectations. Even when we are all White or are all Black, there is diversity and questions of how we come to feel comfortable with each other and live in harmony.

Yes, you do fight racism by denying race. We are suppose to live in a democracy, and the best way to fight racism is to teach for democracy.

"Democracy is a way of life and social organization which above all others is sensitive to the dignity and worth of the individual human personality, affirming the fundamental moral and political equality of all men and recognizing no barriers of race, religion, or circumstance." General Report of the Seminar on "What is Democracy" Congress on Education for Democracy, August 1939

This comes from the Democracy Series text books, and it was education like this, that was dominate as we mobilized for the second war against NAZI Germany. This education lead Black people to expect a very different reality when they signed up to fight in the second world war. It goes with what political leaders were saying this time.

"If we want freedom we must extend it to everyone, whether rich or poor, whether they agree with us or not, no matter what their race or the color of their skin." Wendell Willkie said in the late 1930 tys. You see, as the world began aware of the racism in Germany and the direction that nation was going, we had political leaders and education speaking out against racism, as part of the mobilization for war. This ended the passive Black response to segregation and discrimination. This is logic, it is a philosophy, a culture, politics. Just as slavery is about logic, philosophy, culture and politics.

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Ok, I'm not going to play equivocation all day, but from your working definition of ethnicity, what you really mean is culture. Thank you for your elucidation.

Not so. From the same article; "Slightly over half of all biological/physical anthropologists today believe in the traditional view that human races are biologically valid and real. Furthermore, they tend to see nothing wrong in defining and naming the different populations of Homo sapiens"

Hum, I think I detect hostility? I thought I noticed hostility before and thought no, I am just being too sensitive, but this time you were not replying to me, and I think I see hostility.

Ethnicity does involve all those things, and I do question, because my great grandson has dark skin, should we make a point of exposing him to the food, music and customs of Africa? Should we teach him his heritage is from Africa? Or is it okay if we stick with what we know, and to stay with the meaning of living a democracy and the culture of the land of his birth? He is also part native American, and how much of a deal should make of this being his heritage. Should we be sure to take him to Pow Wows and dress in the clothes of the tribe of his great father? Just how do we explain to him who is and what his heritage is?

When I was a child and the school teacher talked about us coming from different countries in Europe, I asked my mother what I was. She told me I am Hinez 57 varieties. That means, I am a citizen of the US and citizens of the US are a mix of different peoples.

Edited by me-wonders

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Hum I thought questions of logic were philosophical in nature?

I suppose everything can be reduced to a philosophical question, but your original question was how to determine race, which is a scientific question.

And if a child is 3/4 White and 1/4 Black, what is the logic of determining the child's race is Black. The formula for determining if a child is a native American is better than that.

Context is everything. If it's to determine a demographic poll, simple self-identification is sufficient. If it's to prove the ancestry of skeletal remains, a forensic anthropologist can do the job.

How well diverse people get along is sociology, politics, philosophical and psychological isn't it?

Quite so. I think maybe I distilled your OP into just one question, which is my habit. I apologize.

Yes, you do fight racism by denying race. We are suppose to live in a democracy, and the best way to fight racism is to teach for democracy.

I have supplied a reliable source that states that the majority of physical anthropologists believe in race. Look, I am not a racist, I am pro science. I seek the truth without bias, wherever it leads. The idea that race is a social construct is part of Cultural Marxism. The idea that gender is also a social construct is part of the same agenda. Cultural Marxism is also known as political correctness.

I took a few physical anthropology semesters at college and from day one the prof hammered home this same Cultural Marxist propaganda, there's no such thing as race. They showed us a video one day in which they sampled dna from a high school class. They made much of the fact that one apparently white kid was more closely related to a specific black kid in the class, "see, we're all the same" . But what the unstated assumption was that there were specific genetic markers that enabled them to compare these differences. These genetic markers are called Haplogroups.The wiki entry will explain the different markers and their ancestral geographic locations. These are the same tools that popular ancestry companies use for commercial purposes.

If you still deny race, would you also say that the myriad breeds of dogs don't really exist? They are merely a social construct and there is only one race of dog, the dog race. Sounds preposterous doesn't it?

And no, I am not being hostile. I'm just frustrated at having to constantly defend science from Cultural Marxist academics and their stranglehold on education.

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I suppose everything can be reduced to a philosophical question, but your original question was how to determine race, which is a scientific question.

Context is everything. If it's to determine a demographic poll, simple self-identification is sufficient. If it's to prove the ancestry of skeletal remains, a forensic anthropologist can do the job.

Quite so. I think maybe I distilled your OP into just one question, which is my habit. I apologize.

I have supplied a reliable source that states that the majority of physical anthropologists believe in race. Look, I am not a racist, I am pro science. I seek the truth without bias, wherever it leads. The idea that race is a social construct is part of Cultural Marxism. The idea that gender is also a social construct is part of the same agenda. Cultural Marxism is also known as political correctness.

I took a few physical anthropology semesters at college and from day one the prof hammered home this same Cultural Marxist propaganda, there's no such thing as race. They showed us a video one day in which they sampled dna from a high school class. They made much of the fact that one apparently white kid was more closely related to a specific black kid in the class, "see, we're all the same" . But what the unstated assumption was that there were specific genetic markers that enabled them to compare these differences. These genetic markers are called Haplogroups.The wiki entry will explain the different markers and their ancestral geographic locations. These are the same tools that popular ancestry companies use for commercial purposes.

If you still deny race, would you also say that the myriad breeds of dogs don't really exist? They are merely a social construct and there is only one race of dog, the dog race. Sounds preposterous doesn't it?

And no, I am not being hostile. I'm just frustrated at having to constantly defend science from Cultural Marxist academics and their stranglehold on education.

The current consensus and for some time has been that of social constructionism. Your view redhen is a minority view.

The current view is that the human race is one species and that the biological classification of subspecies in other animals cannot be applied to humans.

In fact your view is described as a "racialist tenet".

Thus, the racialist tenet that skin color and other skin-deep properties pick up different biological groups has been assumed to be false.

http://www.pitt.edu/~machery/papers/The%20concept%20of%20race_machery_Faucher_%202005.pdf

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The current consensus and for some time has been that of social constructionism. Your view redhen is a minority view.

The link you provided is from a social scientist (History and Philosophy of Science). In it he describes his theory of how racial concepts historically came about, i.e. "folk biology". Can you provide some scientific evidence instead please?

The current view is that the human race is one species and that the biological classification of subspecies in other animals cannot be applied to humans.

And why not? Zoologists do it for every other species, and are remarkably accurate in their assessments. Are we not naked apes? Or are humans somehow outside of nature?

In fact your view is described as a "racialist tenet".

Sigh, I knew this was coming. This has nothing to do with racialism, racism, bigotry, or any ideology for that matter. This is a simple matter of taxonomy. Racial traits are not Mendelian, they are clinal. Which is most easily seen by skin, hair and eye pigmentation. There are no "pure races". However, genetic markers are reliable tools to ascertain the different ancestral geographic locations for any individual. These are the facts and they are indisputable.

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Sigh, I knew this was coming. This has nothing to do with racialism, racism, bigotry, or any ideology for that matter. This is a simple matter of taxonomy. Racial traits are not Mendelian, they are clinal. Which is most easily seen by skin, hair and eye pigmentation. There are no "pure races". However, genetic markers are reliable tools to ascertain the different ancestral geographic locations for any individual. These are the facts and they are indisputable.

You are talking about heritage, not race. There are no biological markers of any sort that can be found in any one "race".

Ethnicity is essentially culture, though heritage can also play a roll. The point is that it is malleable.

And no, the majority of anthropologists do not believe that different human races are valid and true. That is a completely false statement.

Edited by Imaginarynumber1

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You are talking about heritage, not race. There are no biological markers of any sort that can be found in any one "race".

Ethnicity is essentially culture, though heritage can also play a roll. The point is that it is malleable.

Here's one sample of recent work (posted Dec 5) Reading History through genetics. (from a peer reviewed journal). "He and his team are now doing just that, and have already begun to analyze a first group of about 150 Ashkenazi genomes." Ashkenazi Jews are a favourite study population because of their insular culture.

And no, the majority of anthropologists do not believe that different human races are valid and true. That is a completely false statement.

Source please.

Another link jumped out at from that same scientific journal;

"Dr. Ostrer noted, "The study supports the idea of a Jewish people linked by a shared genetic history. Yet the admixture with European people explains why so many European and Syrian Jews have blue eyes and blonde hair.""

Edited by redhen

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Here's one sample of recent work (posted Dec 5) Reading History through genetics. (from a peer reviewed journal). "He and his team are now doing just that, and have already begun to analyze a first group of about 150 Ashkenazi genomes." Ashkenazi Jews are a favourite study population because of their insular culture.

There is more genetic variation within on group than between two separate ones. Name one consistent feature from any "race".

Source please.

My degree in Anthropological Sciences.

Oh and there are these:

http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/racepp.htm

http://aabss.org/Perspectives2001/wienker2001.jmm.html

http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/richard.robbins/legacy/editors_choice/scientific_racism.htm

http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/race.htm

http://www.thesubversivearchaeologist.com/2011/10/evolutionary-biology-of-race-are-there.html

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.20983/http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.v139:1/issuetoc

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00164.x/abstract

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205064477.pdf

http://science.jrank.org/pages/9231/Ethnicity-Race-in-Anthropology-Ethnicity-Difference.html

Another link jumped out at from that same scientific journal;

"Dr. Ostrer noted, "The study supports the idea of a Jewish people linked by a shared genetic history. Yet the admixture with European people explains why so many European and Syrian Jews have blue eyes and blonde hair."" http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100603123707.htm

Again, ancestry and heritage, not race. Do all Europeans have blond hair and blue eyes?

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There is more genetic variation within on group than between two separate ones. Name one consistent feature from any "race".

From your first link "Conventional geographic "racial" groupings differ from one another only in about 6% of their genes".

Right, and that shows how little variation is needed to effect a change. I've read that we also share something like 98% of our dna with chimps, and we share 50% of our dna with bananas. Does that mean we're half bananas?

My degree in Anthropological Sciences.

Oh and there are these:

thanks, I'll check 'em out.

Again, ancestry and heritage, not race.

they all mean the same thing to me.

Do all Europeans have blond hair and blue eyes?

Obviously not. Again, skin, hair and eye pigmentation are the least useful traits for discerning ancestry. I'm guessing you were never taught racial skeletal characteristics ? Just through that term into Google (Scholarly articles) .

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From your first link "Conventional geographic "racial" groupings differ from one another only in about 6% of their genes".

Right, and that shows how little variation is needed to effect a change. I've read that we also share something like 98% of our dna with chimps, and we share 50% of our dna with bananas. Does that mean we're half bananas?

thanks, I'll check 'em out.

they all mean the same thing to me.

Obviously not. Again, skin, hair and eye pigmentation are the least useful traits for discerning ancestry. I'm guessing you were never taught racial skeletal characteristics ? Just through that term into Google (Scholarly articles) .

All living things have common ancestry.

There is a difference between race, ancestry and heritage even if not everyone is able to differentiate.

As for racial skeletal characteristics:

I have a respected colleague, the skeletal biologist C. Loring Brace, who is as skilled as any of the leading forensic anthropologists at assessing ancestry from bones, yet he does not subscribe to the concept of race. [Read Brace's position on the concept of race.] Neither does Norman Sauer, a board-certified forensic anthropologist. My students ask, "How can this be? They can identify skeletons as to racial origins but do not believe in race!" My answer is that we can often function within systems that we do not believe in.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/does-race-exist.html

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From your first link "Conventional geographic "racial" groupings differ from one another only in about 6% of their genes".

Exactly.Now read that quote in contect with the one that comes before it. Here is the whole passage:

Evidence from the analysis of genetics (e.g., DNA) indicates that most physical variation, about 94%, lies within so-called racial groups. Conventional geographic "racial" groupings differ from one another only in about 6% of their genes. This means that there is greater variation within "racial" groups than between them. In neighboring populations there is much overlapping of genes and their phenotypic (physical) expressions. Throughout history whenever different groups have come into contact, they have interbred. The continued sharing of genetic materials has maintained all of humankind as a single species.

Right, and that shows how little variation is needed to effect a change. I've read that we also share something like 98% of our dna with chimps, and we share 50% of our dna with bananas. Does that mean we're half bananas?

You're not seriously going to pull that creationist claptrap, are you? All living organism on Earth (that we know about) share a common ancestor. We're talking about genetic variation between homo sapiens, not how similar our DNA is to that of other organisms.

they all mean the same thing to me.

They may be to you, but academically and in practice, they are very different things.

Obviously not. Again, skin, hair and eye pigmentation are the least useful traits for discerning ancestry. I'm guessing you were never taught racial skeletal characteristics ? Just through that term into Google (Scholarly articles) .

Those are traits of ancestry, not race. You can have a skull from a european that has similar traits to the skull from an african american, etc.

Edited by Imaginarynumber1

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