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Big Bad Voodoo

Who built underground cities in Cappadocia?

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Kaymakli

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Derinkuyu

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I read about underground city Derinkuyu with eight levels and 85 meters depth in Cappadocia which was used by early Christians as sanctuary and hiding place. Then I notice that theres over 200 underground cities there with 2 or 3 levels. Then I read about Kaymakli city and how Xenophon in his Anabasis wrote about people in Anatolia who lived underground. So that means we talking about 5 century BC. Thousands people could live comfortly in Derinkuyu with fresh water and air.Tunnel on third floor is connected to Kaymakli so 5km distant. At Derinkuyu each level could also be sealed individually.

So who built it?

According to wiki history of that area goes like this:

Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, and was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians (Mushki) after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which later made them apt for foreign slavery. It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius, but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King.

Mushki or Hittites? Who have knowledge of digging so many tunnels with fresh water and ventilation shafts. And with what tools?

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Anatolia was always big interest of me. In 67 BC when Pompey made war against Mithridates of Pontus people of Anatolia put toxic honeycombs near to coming Romans. Ofcourse Roman eat honey and soon they become easy target. Mad honey is known to cause numbness hallucinations, dizziness, hard breathing, paralysis and unconsciousness. Brilliant strategy.

Ofcourse I like Anatolia because of Gobekli Tepe, Troy, Ionia, Catal Hoyuk, Kekova submerged city, Lion gate of Hattusa and Hittites. I once read how Hittites invented biological warfare and connected to mad honey strategy. Hittites sent disease infected rams to their enemies to weaken them with tularemia bactery or rabbit fever which can cause respiratory failure. Around 1335 BC in letter to Akhenaten is described disease which cause death and that donkeys are banned for being used. Rabbit fever can hit donkeys as well as humans. Arzawans from west Anatolia from 1320 -1318 BC attack Hittites and soon rams began to appears on roads in Arzawa. Arzwans took rams to their cities and soon illness spread trough Arzawa. That way treat from west Anatolia for Hittites was deleted.

We all know that Hittites first introduce Iron to us. They were famous for their chariotry and they used cuneiforms from Mesopotamia. Nevertheless people who lived in Anatolia we know ae Hatti or Hattians. Their language isn’t IE. They used Hattic language which is unclassified language. So where the Hittites came from? The oldest name for Anatolia, "Land of the Hatti", was found on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of Sargon the Great c. 2350–2150 BC.

So from where Hittites came from? From where they introduce iron to us? We know that they empire was found 1650 BC but did they fell in 1208 BC? Who dig all those underground cities? Did they came in Anatolia just before Mitanni came in north Mesopotamia and Aryans in India? Whats their connection with Mitannis? They both spoke IE language. Who attack Hittites and destroy their capital aroun 1400 BC? Kashkans?

Edited by the L

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Sredny Stog 4000-3500 BCE first domestication of horse. There is link with Hittites to the Ezero culture and Maikop culture. Maikop culture invented wheel cca 4000 BC. So it isn’t surprising how Hittites were great Charioters. Plus Ezero culture on Balkan it isn’t surprising that they introduce iron to us. Teshub Hurrian god of sky and storm,Hattian Taru, Hittite and Luwian name was Tarhun slayed of the dragon Illuyanka. Illuyanka is connected with Illyrians.

So were Maikops, Hatti or Hittites built it?

Edited by the L

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Maikop

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2montkg.jpg

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Edited by the L
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Xenophon doesnt tell who built underground citites. Probably because he dont know. So we could only guess. Hatti, Maikop, Hittites, Mushki, Mittanies, Unknown?...

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So one more mystery which will be unsolved.

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some interesting reading... . http://earthbeforeflood.com/who_and_when_constructed_underground_terrestrial_megalithic_complex_of_israel.html

Culture of Turkey, "the underground world " existed in the VI century BC during the reign of King Midas of Phrygia - the same one that, according to legend, turned things into gold. Inhabitants of vaults not only had built developed cities ranged down as a spiral to the Center of the Earth but also had connected them with each other by tunnels. Each tunnel was so wide that a cart with a horse could drive there. Many questions have answers, except one: What kind of civilization was it?"

Director of the Department of foreign interviews and investigations of Russian weekly newspaper "Arguments and Facts" wrote: "Why did it have to hide from people? ... I clambered up and down four underground cities in Cappadocia – Derinkuyu, Kaymaklı, Ozkonak and Gaziemir. Deeper into the earth we see more pompous halls for special meetings, food stores, wine cellars and even animals shelters!". Yes, they have horses, pigs and cows in underground cities. Dungeons are not similar to temporary shelters - they were settled thoroughly with long underground streets: Inhabitants had fun on holidays, married, gave birth to children. The Roman annals (so-called "Xenophon's book") in 4 year BC mention one of these cities – Anabasis. "We found the Anabasis casually and were surprised to its sizes. The tunnels leading down are such that it is possible to drag an elephant. There are many big and small ladders. Huge wells. Underground areas for public dances. These cities are made so that nobody noticed them from a surface. People were enemies of their residents."

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I would guess they used a natural cave system and scupted stairways, even floors and walls to make it more handy. Maybe they added some rooms at some point and easier access to water.

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I wonder if there are any online maps of these underground cities?

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I don't know who built the underground cities, but i suspect that once begun, they were expanded on by later occupants?

That entire region is generally considered to be the cradle of civilization?

post-86645-0-20919600-1402099238_thumb.j

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Hi Lightly,

I did a quick search looking to see if there had been any mining done in that area and found this wiki link.I was thinking that they converted mines into theses cities they could work the mine and live in the same location.Who knows?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cappadocian_Greeks

jmccr8

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Xenophon doesnt tell who built underground citites. Probably because he dont know. So we could only guess. Hatti, Maikop, Hittites, Mushki, Mittanies, Unknown?...

Badgers.

They were fleeing from the oppression of the Basset Masters.

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Xenophon doesnt tell who built underground citites. Probably because he dont know. So we could only guess. Hatti, Maikop, Hittites, Mushki, Mittanies, Unknown?...

Maybe all the above built it. :unsure2:

Cool pics, :tu: and link mentioned probably first started pre-metal age....it was the Cappadocians! :whistle:

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Badgers.

They were fleeing from the oppression of the Basset Masters.

Dammit. Beaten to the punch. That's me on ear-cleaning and ham-fetching duty for a week.

--Jaylemurph

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Hi Lightly,

I did a quick search looking to see if there had been any mining done in that area and found this wiki link.I was thinking that they converted mines into theses cities they could work the mine and live in the same location.Who knows?

http://en.wikipedia....padocian_Greeks

jmccr8

Hi j , Thanks, that told some of the interesting history of the area ... I don't know about mines , I think the underground cities are (all?) carved out of soft volcanic rock .

http://www.cappadociaexclusive.com/geological.html

"In recent times, Cappadocia became famous for its unique landscape of valleys and unusual rock formations, known as "fairy chimneys". The formation of this strange landscape started during the third geological period, when three volcanoes located on the edges of this region began erupting frequently. The deposits of volcanoes ash, lava and basalt laid the foundations for today's landscape. Earthquakes and ongoing effects of erosion have contributed to form the valleys and the "fairy chimneys" that can be seen today."

"As the rock below the top layer of basalt is extremely soft, it can be easily carved. Communities took advantage of this to make their home in the rock pillars and under the ground. Today, these examples of homes, churches and whole cities abound in Cappadocia."

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Hi Lightly,

Admittedly I don't know much about this subject,I saw a maps with 5? locations,appeared that they were all located in proximity of coastal areas.I did read about the forming landscape had been volcanic in nature, although it was not clear to me if all the locations were of similar effect.I did read that they had mined salt,as well as chrystal and a soft stone that was similar to ivory,so the thought that they might have been mines crossed my mind.For some reason I was thinking that minerals and ores are pushed to the surface due to volcanic activity,I will have to look around and get some education about it. :yes:

jmccr8

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i don't know either j. Maybe your right about some of them beginning as mines of some sort ?¿? We'll both learn a little more as we go bud. :yes:

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It looks to be Sumerian but I don't think they were in the area.

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