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hunray

Space-time Jump

35 posts in this topic

(I don't know what that means)

In anomalous dispersion gasses, particular frequencies of light can exhibit superluminal group velocities, as you pointed out originally. This effect will only be exhibited in certain materials, and only in cases when the frequencies of light are close to resonance with particular electronic excitations. (This article, which I cited previously, shows the resonances in cesium gas.)

Because pretty much all of the appropriate resonances of materials occur near the infrared-to-optical range, these frequencies of light must be used to demonstrate superluminal group velocity in homogeneous materials. (In the article above, the light is in the infrared range for cesium gas.)

Since this demonstration of superluminal group velocity involves the excitation and de-excitation of single electron states - definitely a quantum problem - it might be reasonable to attribute this effect to some sort of ``quantum weirdness''.

However, as the paper from the Toronto group shows, you can get the same effect from microwaves (with wavelengths in the millimetre to centimetre range) in special structures made with micron-scale pieces of various materials. (And of course, as I've mentioned many times in this thread, you can get an analogous effect with a simple RCL circuit.)

This proves that the effect itself cannot be due to ``quantum weirdness'' (especially since it is predicted with classical electrodynamics).

While the case of superluminal group velocity in cesium gas certainly involves quantum mechanics (because it is due to single-electron excitations), the general phenomenon of superluminal group velocity is not a consequence of quantum mechanics. (An analogy to this is the Hall effect and the quantum Hall effect, see here.)

Since it is ludicrous to attribute microwave superluminal group velocity as somehow involving ``hyperspace'', it is silly to use such a drastic theory to explain superluminal group velocity in a quantum system (as I have tried to point out, allowing electromagnetic energy to ``leak'' somewhere else would dramatically change the very structure of atoms, among other things).

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485279_10151561358430708_1835836224_n.jpg

its still just a movie folks ...

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In metals, which make up the wires and other conductors in most electrical circuits, the positive charges are immobile, and the charge carriers are electrons. Because the electron carries negative charge, the electron motion in a metal conductor is in the direction opposite to that of conventional (or electric) current.

When analyzing electrical circuits, the actual direction of current through a specific circuit element is usually unknown.

{As we see all stars rotate around the earth, and get the conclusion that we're in the center of the Universe?}

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In metals, which make up the wires and other conductors in most electrical circuits, the positive charges are immobile, and the charge carriers are electrons. Because the electron carries negative charge, the electron motion in a metal conductor is in the direction opposite to that of conventional (or electric) current.

When analyzing electrical circuits, the actual direction of current through a specific circuit element is usually unknown.

What does this have to do with the original topic of this thread?

Why is it at all important to know which direction electrons are moving in a circuit?

And what circuit elements have unknown directions of current? Every element that I can think of has a pretty obvious direction of electron flow once you understand the circuit it is placed in.

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In metals, which make up the wires and other conductors in most electrical circuits, the positive charges are immobile, and the charge carriers are electrons. Because the electron carries negative charge, the electron motion in a metal conductor is in the direction opposite to that of conventional (or electric) current.

When analyzing electrical circuits, the actual direction of current through a specific circuit element is usually unknown.

{As we see all stars rotate around the earth, and get the conclusion that we're in the center of the Universe?}

Apologies for jumping in here...Current can be either Positive or Negative, and it is surprisingly easy to detect which Sign it carries, in fact it is stupidly easy.

Back on topic: Superluminal acceleration is entirely possible and credible, but it seems (and I stress "SEEMS") to be dependent on whether any Mass is involved, and whether any Information can be transmitted at the same time.

Looking at the Good Old Star Trek Scenario (Warp Drive) what is actually happening is that Spacetime itself is being condensed (in the forward direction of travel) and expanded (in the reverse direction of Travel) to give the impression of Superluminal Travel (and Information Exchange), when, (in Einsteinian Theory) the rest of the Universe is ageing at the rate of T0.

Einstein of course made several grave errors in his hypotheses (please Google because there are too many to mention here), save to say that his famous Thought Experiments (look at the "Twins in Elevators") hold errors that even a Sophomore should spot.

IMO

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What does this have to do with the original topic of this thread?

Why is it at all important to know which direction electrons are moving in a circuit?

And what circuit elements have unknown directions of current? Every element that I can think of has a pretty obvious direction of electron flow once you understand the circuit it is placed in.

It is incredibly important to know the direction of Electron Flow, especially in Nano Circuitry, when sequencing of Active devices on this scale is crucial.

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It is incredibly important to know the direction of Electron Flow, especially in Nano Circuitry, when sequencing of Active devices on this scale is crucial.

I agree with your example. My point (which as I reread my post seems to have been poorly made) was that for conventional circuits (as we seemed to be discussing) the voltage biases and current amplitude are important. Whether individual electrons are flowing left to right, or right to left, or whatever isn't important.

(And I definitely agree with your other post that it is easy to identify which direction electrons are moving.)

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I agree with your example. My point (which as I reread my post seems to have been poorly made) was that for conventional circuits (as we seemed to be discussing) the voltage biases and current amplitude are important. Whether individual electrons are flowing left to right, or right to left, or whatever isn't important.

(And I definitely agree with your other post that it is easy to identify which direction electrons are moving.)

Apologies Sepulchrave, wasn't trying to demean your post, because on a macro scale it is pretty irrelevant (flow of electrons) to the functioning of the components (it is just a question of Q on the plates).

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Apologies Sepulchrave, wasn't trying to demean your post,

No worries, I didn't think you were.

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Great posts, sepu - I always enjoy reading your posts. :tu:

Cheers,

Badeskov

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