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Abramelin

What happened around 1200 BCE?

44 posts in this topic

By looking up stuff for the Oera Linda Book thread I have found something that deserves its own thread.

OK, here several old posts of mine:

The Medinet Habu Tablets clarify some of the events. Some of the Sea Peoples, as prisoners, declare: "Our islands are uprooted and carried away. The might of Nun [ocean] broke forth and fell in great wave on our towns and villages. The head of their cities has gone under the sea; their land is no more" (inscriptions 37, 46, 80, 102 & 109). This is very much like the geologist's descriptions examined earlier for northern Europe. Ramses III declared on the walls of Medinet Habu that "the whole delta of the Nile is flooded by the sea." Later he states, as does the archeological evidence, that there were vast fires in the Near East: "Libya became a desert; a terrible torch hurled flame from heaven to destroy their souls and lay waste their land [as] their bones burn and roast within their limbs [and] the Nile was dried up and the land fell victim to drought" (Tablet 105). Again, like Homer, the fires are said to be the result of a source from outside of the Earth.

http://www.livingcosmos.com/1250-1050BC.htm

I tried to find an online source for the translations of the Medinet Habu hieroglyphs to corroborate the above quote but couldn't find it.

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=176033&st=150#entry3306294

1200 BCE again:

Abstract

Identified in April of 1995, and still without geologic definitive prove of its origin, it was applied to the Panela crater (PE)a multidisciplinary study to investigate its cosmic origin. From geometric data of the crater it was possible to determine the size of the meteoroid, direction and angle of fall of the meteor that formed it. The ray (300 km) of vision of its troposphere explosion and the projection of 1000 km of the bolides’ trajectory from the impact place were analyzed in the Northeast region of Brazil. Archaeological sites with presence of meteoritic rock art theme were mapped in this region. The relation of the observer’s position, the parallax and his view of the phenomenon in the sky were investigated on these prehistoric registers, from different sites. The analyses of the rock arts of these prehistoric sites are coherent for a cosmic phenomenon, a Tunguska like (1908) event for the Panela crater formation, the Tupana event, around the year 1200 B.C.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/42492391/THE-PREHISTORIC-REPRESENTATIONS-OF-THE-TUPANA-EVENT-IN-NORTHEASTERN-BRAZIL-PIERSON-BARRETTO-Arcaeoastronomy-Expert

The Panela Crater(field) is located in Pernambuco, Brazil, at the north-eastern shouldertip of South America.

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=227240&st=2175#entry4597603

And again (posted by "The_L" today (Paleontology forum) :

Rapid cooling triggered Bronze-Age collapse and Greek Dark Age

Of course the politically correct verbiage is “climate change.”

Between the 13th and 11th centuries BCE, most Greek Bronze Age Palatial centers were destroyed and/or abandoned throughout the Near East and Aegean, says this paper by Brandon L. Drake

A sharp increase in Northern Hemisphere temperatures preceded the wide-spread systems collapse, while a sharp decrease in temperatures occurred during their abandonment. (Neither of which, I am sure – the increase or the decrease – were caused by humans.)

Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures cooled rapidly during the Late Bronze Age, limiting freshwater flux into the atmosphere and thus reducing precipitation over land, says Drake, of the Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico.

This cooling and ensuing aridity could have affected areas that were dependent upon high levels of agricultural productivity. The resulting crop declines would have made higher-density populations unsustainable.

Indeed, studies of data from the Mediterranean indicate that the Early Iron Age was more arid than the preceding Bronze Age. The prolonged arid conditions – a centuries-long megadrought, if you will – lasted until the Roman Warm Period.

Those four centuries – known as the ‘Greek Dark Ages’ – were typified by low population levels, rural settlements, population migration, and limited long-distance trade.

The Late Bronze Age collapse is associated with the loss of writing systems such as Linear B, and the extinction of Hatti as both a written and spoken language. Writing and literacy do not return to the Aegean until the end of the ‘Greek Dark Ages’ in 8th century BCE with the spread of the Phoenecian alphabet.

The collapse of Palatial Civilization occurred in different places at different times. Many of these destructions have been attributed to human-causes. (We love to blame humans for climate-driven circumstances, don’t we?) Large population migrations took place, most famously with the incursions of the ‘Sea Peoples’ into the Nile Delta and the Levant.

In Egypt, several inscriptions detailed wars with ‘Sea People’ beginning in the reign of Ramses II (1279-1213 BCE). While population movements of the ‘Sea People’ were better documented in Egypt and the Levant, they have been tied to destabilization of the Aegean region as well.

More here:

http://iceagenow.info/2013/05/rapid-cooling-triggered-bronze-age-collapse-greek-dark-age/

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=227240&st=4020#entry4784579

Society for Interdisciplinary Studies

The oldest and most up to date society for catastrophist information and research

Proceedings of the Second SIS Cambridge Conference

'Natural Catastrophes During Bronze Age Civilisations:

Archaeological, geological, astronomical and cultural perspectives'.

A conference at Fitzwilliam College. Cambridge. 11th-13th July 1997

Organised by The Society for Interdisciplinary Studies.

The next group of papers is concerned with events which are slightly more recent, occurring around the time certain Late Bronze Age cultures came to an end. Firstly, Amos Nur argues that large earthquakes are likely to have contributed to the physical and political collapse of Late Bronze Age civilisations around the eastern Mediterranean. It is known that, every few centuries, massive earthquakes occur in bursts that sweep across about 1000 km of the eastern Mediterranean over a time-scale of approximately 50 years. In Nur's scenario, the burst at the end of the Late Bronze Age probably began between 1225-1175 BC, and made urban centres vulnerable to opportunist military attacks.

Then, Lars Franzén and Thomas Larsson present evidence from sites in Tunisia and Sweden showing that a major atmospheric cooling event, accompanied by excessive precipitation, which led to flooding, occurred around 1000 BC. Other sources indicate that the event was sudden and widespread, and the finding of small glassy spherules points to a possible impact origin. Franzén and Larsson suggest that an asteroid or comet of diameter in the range 0.5-5 km may have landed in the eastern Atlantic around 1000 BC, affecting in particular Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.

http://www.sis-group.org.uk/cambproc.htm

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=227240&st=2175#entry4597599

What is strangely lacking from the OLB is what happened around 1200 BC:

1250 to 1050 BC -- Purifying Fires and an Exodus of Enormous Proportions

[...]

Apolloduros, a Greek author of the 2nd Century BC, recounts the event which, as with Crete, struck Mycenae: "Poseidon in his rage let monstrous masses of water overwhelm the land; the Thrisassio plain was drowned and Attica sank beneath the sea.". All things considered, Homer, Apolloduros, and the archeological and geological evidence all paint the same picture.

A physicist that studies earthquakes has another interpretation of what else took place. He sees a swarm of earthquakes taking place over 50 years, around 1200 BC, and sweeping areas from southern Italy to central Turkey. It was not just the earthquakes that were responsible, but that "the earthquakes provided the vulnerability of these economic and military centers to attack."

Elsewhere in Europe

Similar events seem to stretch throughout Europe and into the region of the North Sea. Over 400 pile (lake) dwellings in Europe were overwhelmed so quickly that bronze weapons, jewelry, cooking pots, and other objects of daily use were found in the lake bed. The scene seems to suggest that sudden and simultaneous flood waves occurred in the lakes, and were of the kind that only occur after the most violent earthquakes.

One geologist found many places from North Jutland to Dithmarschen, in the area of the North Sea, with traces of a great flood that overwhelmed islands and coastal lands: "If we compare the results of these observations, we have to conclude that a flood coming from the west once broke over these coasts, far surpassing in height and extent any other known to history." As a result, a village now rests five meters (16.5 feet) below the surface of Lake Bolsena. Italian Department of Antiquities authorities say that it was smashed by a severe earthquake that caused a violent "tidal" wave to wash over the village, leaving only the walls of the huts. Its full extent is suggested by the Umbrians' history, who are not native to Italy, but legend says that they were driven from their homeland by a terrible flood. These are but a few examples of civilizations dissolved away as a result of floods and gargantuan earthquakes, which seem to dominate the scene of this time period.

The north of Europe was densely populated before this period of upheaval began. However, it lost most of its population in the 13th Century BC. The archeological evidence indicates an almost total lack of finds on the Danish islands and the Scandinavian mainland. Furthermore, this situation lasts for 350 years, and was the result of widespread forces unleashed against civilization. Archeologists and historians see the events culminating in a mass migration away from the region.

Geologists' observations in a number of areas indicate that a huge wave overcame Europe. The West Coast of Germany was flooded by such an enormous wave that banks of silt were created that today stretch 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) and up to 10 meters high (35 feet), even after more than 3,000 years of weathering. On the south coast of the North Sea another excavation disclosed what remained of a "catastrophe of annihilating force": "With all its violent power, the North Sea [struck so hard] that trees were laid flat by the first rush of the water. The tops of these uprooted trees always point to the east, which supports the assumption that the catastrophe was caused by a storm from the west."

Also about 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) below the waves near the island of Memmert, ancient dryland was discovered. There, underwater, and in addition to other things, "the hoof marks of cattle and horses were also visible and wagon tracks [were] clearly marked in the soil." Certainly, these had been covered quickly or they would not have lasted, which suggests more than merely "a storm." This event was one of the factors that sent masses of people (including the Sea People) migrating, or more accurately, fleeing for their lives.

The story throughout the remainder of Europe is all too familiar when compared with the evidence from elsewhere. In Hungary the existing population either completely died out or moved to some unknown location(s), leaving the area behind for the fundamental, even ethnic changes that occurred with the newcomers, the Urnfield culture. Etna, a volcano in Northeastern Sicily, erupted three times during this period. Thapsos, a promontory, once an island near Syracuse in Sicily, has virtually nothing left of the village that was brought to ruin there. In Central Europe the Tumulus culture, too, filled the pages of its final chapter. The last remains of Stonehenge, enfeebled by the previous cycle, was no match for what this cycle brought upon them, as they passed from history. Spain, France, Portugal and a number of islands were not immune, as elsewhere, to the necessity of wildlife's reestablishment.

http://www.livingcos...1250-1050BC.htm

http://www.unexplain...25#entry3342971

In Defense of Nature: The History Nobody Told You About

By Richard Michael Pasichnyk

http://books.google....AwC&redir_esc=y

http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=227240&st=2130#entry4574330

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Posted (edited)

Czechoslovakian astronomer Ľubor Kresák gave a theory that mysterious Tunguska event of 1908 was in fact a fragment of Comet Encke. One theory considers that impacts of Taurid debris fragments may have been responsible for the Bronze Age collapse in the Fertile Crescent, perhaps evidenced by a large meteor crater in Iraq. Ancient people may have experienced Tunguska-type events, which occur approximately every 300 years as calculated by Eugene Shoemaker.

http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2012/11/05/taurids-earth-entering-debris-comet-encke/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age_collapse

Although a large mount of circumstantial evidence has been published in the literature suggesting Umm al Binni is an impact crater, no on-site analysis has been done, primarily due to the current volatile and dangerous situation in Iraq. Therefore, Umm al Binni lake remains a possible, albeit unconfirmed, impact structure.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umm_al_Binni_lake

.

Edited by Abramelin
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Early Bronze Age battle site found on German river bank

Fractured human remains found on a German river bank could provide the first compelling evidence of a major Bronze Age battle.

Archaeological excavations of the Tollense Valley in northern Germany unearthed fractured skulls, wooden clubs and horse remains dating from around 1200 BC.

The injuries to the skulls suggest face-to-face combat in a battle perhaps fought between warring tribes, say the researchers.

The paper, published in the journal Antiquity, is based primarily on an investigation begun in 2008 of the Tollense Valley site, which involved both ground excavations and surveys of the riverbed by divers.

They found remains of around 100 human bodies, of which eight had lesions to their bones. Most of the bodies, but not all, appeared to be young men.

The injuries included skull damage caused by massive blows or arrowheads, and some of the injuries appear to have been fatal.

One humerus (upper arm) bone contained an arrow head embedded more than 22mm into the bone, while a thigh bone fracture suggests a fall from a horse (horse bones were also found at the site).

The archaeologists also found remains of two wooden clubs, one the shape of a baseball bat and made of ash, the second the shape of a croquet mallet and made of sloe wood.

Dr Harald Lubke of the Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology in Germany said the evidence pointed to a major battle site, perhaps the earliest found to date.

"At the the beginning of the Neolithic, we have finds like Talheim in Germany, where we have evidence of violence, but it doesn't look like this situation in the Tollense Valley where we have many humans there in the riverbed," he told the BBC.

"We have a lot of violence from blunt weapons without any healing traces, and we have also evidence of sharp weapons. There are a lot of signs that this happened immediately before the victims died and the bodies are not buried in the normal way."

More here:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13469861

According to reports in the German media, human remains from the Bronze Age have been found in the region named "Tollensetal" (Tollense valley) since 1997. Many showed signs of serious injury and violent death. Starting in 2008, archaeological study of the site narrowed-down to an area of two square kilometers. Hundreds of bone fragments belonging to more than 90 persons, as well as wooden weaponry and flint arrowheads, have been discovered. These findings were possible due to the preservation of the former swamp ground and the fact that the Tollense has never really changed its course. It is now estimated that about 200 people died in a battle-like scenario in the valley about 1250 BC. Since the population density then was about 5 people per square kilometer, this would have been the most significant battle in bronze period Germany yet to be discovered. Plans for a further investigation of the site have been made for the years 2010 to 2015.

The Tollense Valley site may be the earliest known major Bronze Age battle site, with a date of around 1200 BC. Fractured skulls unearthed at the site suggest face-to-face combat, possibly between warring tribes. Most of the remains appear to be from young men and some of the injuries seem to have occurred immediately before death. The bodies do not appear to have been buried in a normal ceremony and instead were dumped in the river. Horse bones were also found at the site and a fractured thigh bone suggest a fall from a horse.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tollense

The period around 1200 cal BC was characterised by a phase of climatic deterioration. From c. 1300-1200 cal BC the Alps saw the most intensive phase of Holocene glaciation (Lobben-phase; e.g. Schmidt et al. 2009: 91) and dendrochronological evidence points to a slightly younger maximum of cooler and wetter conditions (Bailey 1998: 52). There is little doubt that climatic conditions around 1200 cal BC caused general population stress, and may have provoked conflict. The transition to the Lausitz and Urnfield cultures and the related introduction of cremation graves reflect fundamental changes within Bronze Age society (Harding 1994: 304-305; Jockenhovel 2004-5; Falkenstein 2006-7). Sites such as Velim-Skalka and the Tollense Valley can be interpreted as the manifestation of these transformation processes and the evidence presented here will stimulate discussion on migration at that time (Harding et al. 2007: 152 & 159-60).

(...)

The Tollense Valley is of glacial origin, and the section under consideration is 250-500m wide. The valley is deeply cut into the morainic plateau which nowadays is used as pasture. Because of the low valley gradient, the Holocene transgression of the Baltic Sea raised the groundwater table upstream (Janke 2002) and induced the development of river valley marshes from c. 1200 BC onwards. Organic gyttja and fluvial sediment layers rich in molluscs, identified under peats and 1.5-4m below the ground surface, indicate backwaters and abandoned fluvial channels. The river meandered in a corridor c. 100m wide close to its modern course, but in contrast to modern times the bed was flat and broad. According to botanical macro-remains the find layer developed in standing or slow-running water where submerged plants grew. It is possible that the sedimentation of the main findspot was influenced by a flood event. The neighbouring Bronze Age forests were characterised by oak, lime, elm and ash. In the marshy river valley alder and birch were probably the dominant species. The Bronze Age environment can be described as a partly open landscape that showed limited human impact. However, flax, barley, oat and wheat pollen indicate some farming activities.

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/A+Bronze+Age+battlefield%3F+Weapons+and+trauma+in+the+Tollense+Valley,...-a0262582517

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Possibly a swarm of comets impacted around 1200 BCE in the Atlantic and the Middle East.

It caused floods in Europe (and all kinds of other mayhem) that sent people on the move, and made them invade countries in southern Europe, and maybe even the Mediterranean.

Possibly some of the Sea Peoples came from northern Europe.

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Posted (edited)

From your post:

...full extent is suggested by the Umbrians' history, who are not native to Italy, but legend says that they were driven from their homeland by a terrible flood.

As Im aware they were called Umbri by greeks because they survive deluge. ...But how they are not native to Italy?

Edit: Im asking you that because I also suspected before that they came from North-west Europe.

Edited by the L

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Posted (edited)

From your post:

...full extent is suggested by the Umbrians' history, who are not native to Italy, but legend says that they were driven from their homeland by a terrible flood.

As Im aware they were called Umbri by greeks because they survive deluge. ...But how they are not native to Italy?

Edit: Im asking you that because I also suspected before that they came from North-west Europe.

This is from Wiki:

The region is named for the Umbri tribe, one of those who were absorbed by the expansion of the Romans. Pliny the Elder recounts a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the most ancient race in Italy.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbria

"Umbri" makes me think of "amber", and we all know the ancients traded amber with people from the Baltic.

But this is maybe bs.

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Im aware of that but no where where I read before (and I looked) didnt read that they were not native to Italy. Which I belived.

Because in UK there is Northumbria. And ... an ancient pre-English river name of unknown origin.

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=humber

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Posted (edited)

My idea was first that Northumbria was colony of Umbri.

Then I thought could it be that they settled in Italy from UK?

I search and found out that there are coffins in Northumbria similar to Etruscan.

And historians explain that coincidence by Etruscan in Roman army.

Edited by the L

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You'd be amazed how many hints there are to "amber" or (German)"bernstein" in England.

I once saved a pic from a German book about the spread of the word "Bernstein" in England.

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Posted (edited)

My idea was first that Northumbria was colony of Umbri.

Then I thought could it be that they settled in Italy from UK?

I search and found out that there are coffins in Northumbria similar to Etruscan.

And historians explain that coincidence by Etruscan in Roman army.

The next important question is this: you have any sources that tell us these Etruscans settled in Northumbria 1200 BCE?

Because that is the time we are talking about in this thread.

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Hekla eruption was about time you spoke about...

Archaologists couldnt dates coffins. Because they were from stone. I will try to search it for you.

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But your link say

ts full extent is suggested by the Umbrians' history, who are not native to Italy, but legend says that they were driven from their homeland by a terrible flood.

I wonder on WHAT they conclude that Umbri were not native to Italy.

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Hekla eruption was about time you spoke about...

Archaologists couldnt dates coffins. Because they were from stone. I will try to search it for you.

If it was an eruption the size and magnitude of Thera or Toba, then "yes".

Mind you: it created huge floods (tsunamis).

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But your link say

ts full extent is suggested by the Umbrians' history, who are not native to Italy, but legend says that they were driven from their homeland by a terrible flood.

I wonder on WHAT they conclude that Umbri were not native to Italy.

That I don't know.

From what I found out they came from northern Europe, the Baltic area.

Amber - Umbri.

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So called Etrsucan coffins were found on island Portland.

http://www.redicecreations.com/article.php?id=4717

Is there any relation to the topic of this thread?

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Posted (edited)

Go on 20 minutes.

[media=]

[/media]

Is there any relation to the topic of this thread?

I dont know. You mentioned Umbri then one thing followed to another.

Edited by the L

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Posted (edited)

Go on 20 minutes.

[media=]

[/media]

I dont know. You mentioned Umbri then one thing followed to another.

I watched the video from 20 minutes and on (like you suggested) from the start.

But nothing in that video tells me it is from 1200 BCE.

.

Edited by Abramelin

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I watched the video from 20 minutes off (like you suggested) from the start.

But nothing in that video tells me it is from 1200 BCE.

Gerry in interview for Croatian televison said that archaeologist dont know date of it, as I said it in my previous post.

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Gerry in interview for Croatian televison said that archaeologist dont know date of it, as I said it in my previous post.

Lol, so what's the use of that info for this thread?

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From your post:

...full extent is suggested by the Umbrians' history, who are not native to Italy, but legend says that they were driven from their homeland by a terrible flood.

As Im aware they were called Umbri by greeks because they survive deluge. ...But how they are not native to Italy?

Edit: Im asking you that because I also suspected before that they came from North-west Europe.

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We should look for that source that gives us the account of that "terrible flood".

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Posted (edited)

We should look for that source that gives us the account of that "terrible flood".

You are strict for details.

Edited by the L
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This is from Wiki:

The region is named for the Umbri tribe, one of those who were absorbed by the expansion of the Romans. Pliny the Elder recounts a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the most ancient race in Italy.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umbria

"Umbri" makes me think of "amber", and we all know the ancients traded amber with people from the Baltic.

But this is maybe bs.

.

Probably not important, but It made me think of Umber / Brown. The Umbria region is famous for it's Dark clays ... or maybe 'umbrians' was the Roman/Latin name for them and it meant dark?

um·ber

(

ubreve.gifmprime.gifbschwa.gifr)

n.

1. A natural brown earth containing ferric oxide and manganese oxides, used as pigment.

2. Any of the shades of brown produced by umber in its various states.

adj.

1.
Of or related to umber.

2.
Having a brownish color.

tr.v. um·bered, um·ber·ing, um·bers

To darken with or as if with umber.

[French (terre d') ombre or Italian (terra di) ombra, shadow (earth), both possibly from alteration (influenced by French ombreand Italian ombra, shadow) of Latin Umbria, a region of ancient Italy.]

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I came across this while looking for ruins...

Bronze_age_collapse

I don't know if it'll add anything to the discussion, but I found it interesting...

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