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LucidElement

Miscellaneous History

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I thought I would start a new topic called miscellaneous history. Since I joined in 03' there are many more members, some being skeptics (nothing wrong with that) others with open-minds who aren't so quick to judge others. ("ME"). Anyways, being a history major in college doesn't mean you have a 100 percent grasp on every angle of history. History covers so many perspective of the past. For example, some of my classes during my undergraduate level were from Ancient China (Shang Dynasty to the Shoguns), to technology within history (which was extremely interesting) all the way to the American Progressive Era (1890-1915) which my senior thesis was about. And my Capstone followed upon Environmental History. There were many classes I took in between which every history major takes as an undergrad (at least in the U.S) from European History, to Middle Eastern History. Regardless, I have learned so much from this site in the last 11 years that THEY DO NOT TEACH IN COLLEGE. They don't teach Alternative History, at least in the majority of colleges I know of, such as Nazca Lines, Easter Island, Oak Island, Atlantis, Macchu Picchu, Mary Celeste, Roanoke, ect. That was all self taught from this site. After 11 years on this site, I can tell there are members here who just join to try and debunk everything which really is a shame. But for those of you who take the time to think outside of the box or post a decent topic thanks for sharing. This thread im opening Im doing so because I would like to learn as much from those who love history as possible.. Of course there is going to be those individuals who just post random stuff that doesn't make sense, but all and all, im hoping to get members who truly enjoy history to post what they enjoy reading about..Such as; What their favorite unexplained mysteries are....maybe even something random facts about history (or ALTERNATIVE history) Im always open to learning new things.. If you wouldn't mind taking the time to post and perhaps explain your favorite unexplained mysteries that would be great. Or even something about history that you found interesting.

FOR EXAMPLE;

- I took American civil war in college and I just learned today (which i must have missed in class, if they taught it at all) that Lincoln offered to give General Lee command of a Union Army when the war began. Lee wanted to hold the Union together. His family's sympathies laid with the Union. But he was a Virginian and in the end he could take up arms against his home state. But, after the Surrender he was all for the Reconstruction.

- The Aztecs made human sacrifices to the Gods as we all know, but. In 1487, at the dedication of the temple in Tenochtitlan, 20,000 people were put to death.

Remember, it doesn't have to be facts, I enjoy reading and learning from this site, why settle for ONE thread when you can just put whatever historical thoughts are on your mind here. Trust me ill be reading all of this and commenting. Im excited to hear what the UM members find interesting, from facts top topics.

One topic my buddy is really involved in right now is the Paracus Skulls, which are mind-baffling especially with the new DNA research that has just been documented.

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To me the most interesting thing about history is how so few people know the basics.

For example, there are entirely too many Americans that think Ben Franklin was president at some point.

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And how does "slightly interesting bits of trivia" equate with "ancient mysteries and alternative history"?

--Jaylemurph

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It's not that it "differs" but rather that there's not enough time to go into that amount of detail -- and frankly, you'd have rebelled if you'd had to read (as I did for pleasure) all three volumes of LEE'S LIEUTENANTS (required reading in military classes and officer training classes at one time). You'd get loads of interesting information that's not in many books (and you might think was a conspiracy, but it was not)... and in the time you spent learning about those books, you could not have simultaneously learned about constitutional law, civics, voting rights, the Indian wars, the Louisiana purchase, Alaska, and a thousand other things.

Had you taken the archaeology of Central and South America, you WOULD have gotten lots on Machu Piccu. Anthropology also touches on Easter Island, as does Biology. I've had it in several classes.

Teachers have to pick and choose and educators have to put fairly simple material in books because to really touch on the subjects in depth means a lot of reading and a lot of learning, and most people don't want that kind of constant grind-to-learn and testing on top of all that.

Not unless you've got Hermione's gadget that slows time so you can read it all!

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my current topic of study are the "fortified hills" found in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. some of them look a lot like the hill forts built in the stone age in Britain while others appear to be more closely related to roman forts built during their conquest of Europe. they are attributed to the "mound builder" civilization but they seem to be a little advanced as far as defensive works of that era go. extensive research was done back in the early 1800's (Ephriam Squire) but Joseph Smith used that research as a basis for his book of Mormons which kind of caused legitimate scholars to turn a blind eye to this part of North American history. so now we get this yahoo on H2 telling us history isn't what we've been told and does everything but have the "Hair" on to talk about aliens.

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Thanks to my interest in ancients wargaming I've acquired an interest in ancient and medieval history from around the world.

For me, one of the interesting and intriguing mysteries is how much direct contact there was between the Greco-Roman and Chinese cultures. We know, for example, that two Roman traders in the early 2nd century made it all the way to China by sea, where they were introduced to the then Chinese Emperor. But nothing came of the contact. Likewise, about two centuries earlier a Chinese delegation made it across Central Asia perhaps as far as the Caspian Sea, with the intention of going to Rome, but were deflected from that by the Parthians who sat in between Rome and China and who profited from the mutual trade.

But in between these two journeys is another story that the Chinese like to trot out occasionally. In 53BC the fabulously rich Roman businessman and politician, Marcus Crassus, led an army to invade Parthia. The result was a disaster. Crassus was killed, along with something like 15,000 men in his army. The Parthians captured another 10,000 soldiers, who they planted as military colonists on their north-eastern frontier, facing Central Asia. From here things get hazy. Supposedly about a decade later an army of Central Asian nomads attacked that part of Parthia, capturing these men and taking them back into Central Asia. The nomads then attacked a city at the western edge of the Chinese Empire, and deposited the men there. The Chinese then counter-attacked, recaptured the town, and captured the soldiers. They were then settled somewhere in China, where they retained a distinctive culture for a couple of centuries. Did this actually happen? I don't know but it would be great if it were possible to find out.

Now versions of the story suggest that Chinese authorities today have conducted DNA tests which show certain populations have characteristics in common with Europeans, implying there's some truth to the story. But the problem is that, even if these results are true, there's no way of being sure the characteristics were introduced by Crassus's hapless veterans. There were other occasions when Europeans travelled to China after the fall of the Roman Empire, such as Christian missionaries from the 4th century onwards, and European soldiers drafted into Mongol armies in the 13th century who later took part in the Mongol invasion of China.

With regard to Christian missionaries in China, I've read a fascinating book titled "The Jesus Sutras" which suggests that a version of Christianity which had been strongly influenced by Buddhism was introduced into China in about the 7th century. Descendents of Chinese converts were later discovered by European missionaries travelling to China in the 16th century, although the Chinese had only the vaguest understanding of the religion.

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And speaking of China, I was interested when Gavin Menzies's book "1421" first came out. I knew about the Ming Dynasty Treasure Fleets and their voyages to Sri Lanka and Africa, and wanted to find out more about Menzies's theory that they'd travelled all over the world.

Then I read the book. Oh dear.

It didn't take very long to work out Menzies had effectively no evidence to back up his story, and that the evidence he presented was often contradictory or made up.

For example, he has part of the fleet circumnavigating Greenland, on the grounds that it was warmer back then than now, and that sea levels were higher then than now. He also describes being able to recognise bays as described on a 15th century map, suggesting sea levels were identical then and now. Finally, he proposes that the Chinese of the Treasure Fleet built the Bimini Road which is currently underwater, suggesting sea levels were lower then than now. I'm sorry, but no sensible theory can propose that the sea level in the early 15th century was simultaneously higher than, and lower than, and the same as it is today.

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To me the most interesting thing about history is how so few people know the basics.

For example, there are entirely too many Americans that think Ben Franklin was president at some point.

I agree with that, history has many misconceptions, id guess the majority of people don't read especially the younger generations. Franklin was a founding father of the U.S and he surely has contributed much to the start of this country.

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Posted (edited)

And how does "slightly interesting bits of trivia" equate with "ancient mysteries and alternative history"?

--Jaylemurph

Jayle if you read im asking about not just facts but about favorite ALTERNATIVE and UNEXPLAINED MYSTERIES, so I can discuss and learn from people as I have the last 11 years on this site. Stop being such a hater and contribute. The majority of Alternative/Unexplained things I've learned was because of this site. Then I go out and read up about it. SO thats how it Equates. Not to mention people can learn from other people on a thread like this... I had no idea about the Mary Celeste or the Ourang Medan, Oak Island and much more.

LIKE PETER B's and Miskatonic Grad. Interesting.

Edited by LucidElement
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It's not that it "differs" but rather that there's not enough time to go into that amount of detail -- and frankly, you'd have rebelled if you'd had to read (as I did for pleasure) all three volumes of LEE'S LIEUTENANTS (required reading in military classes and officer training classes at one time). You'd get loads of interesting information that's not in many books (and you might think was a conspiracy, but it was not)... and in the time you spent learning about those books, you could not have simultaneously learned about constitutional law, civics, voting rights, the Indian wars, the Louisiana purchase, Alaska, and a thousand other things.

Had you taken the archaeology of Central and South America, you WOULD have gotten lots on Machu Piccu. Anthropology also touches on Easter Island, as does Biology. I've had it in several classes.

Teachers have to pick and choose and educators have to put fairly simple material in books because to really touch on the subjects in depth means a lot of reading and a lot of learning, and most people don't want that kind of constant grind-to-learn and testing on top of all that.

Not unless you've got Hermione's gadget that slows time so you can read it all!

True about all sorts of different subjects you can take in class. archaeology, i've always found fascinating.

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Thanks to my interest in ancients wargaming I've acquired an interest in ancient and medieval history from around the world.

For me, one of the interesting and intriguing mysteries is how much direct contact there was between the Greco-Roman and Chinese cultures. We know, for example, that two Roman traders in the early 2nd century made it all the way to China by sea, where they were introduced to the then Chinese Emperor. But nothing came of the contact. Likewise, about two centuries earlier a Chinese delegation made it across Central Asia perhaps as far as the Caspian Sea, with the intention of going to Rome, but were deflected from that by the Parthians who sat in between Rome and China and who profited from the mutual trade.

But in between these two journeys is another story that the Chinese like to trot out occasionally. In 53BC the fabulously rich Roman businessman and politician, Marcus Crassus, led an army to invade Parthia. The result was a disaster. Crassus was killed, along with something like 15,000 men in his army. The Parthians captured another 10,000 soldiers, who they planted as military colonists on their north-eastern frontier, facing Central Asia. From here things get hazy. Supposedly about a decade later an army of Central Asian nomads attacked that part of Parthia, capturing these men and taking them back into Central Asia. The nomads then attacked a city at the western edge of the Chinese Empire, and deposited the men there. The Chinese then counter-attacked, recaptured the town, and captured the soldiers. They were then settled somewhere in China, where they retained a distinctive culture for a couple of centuries. Did this actually happen? I don't know but it would be great if it were possible to find out.

Now versions of the story suggest that Chinese authorities today have conducted DNA tests which show certain populations have characteristics in common with Europeans, implying there's some truth to the story. But the problem is that, even if these results are true, there's no way of being sure the characteristics were introduced by Crassus's hapless veterans. There were other occasions when Europeans travelled to China after the fall of the Roman Empire, such as Christian missionaries from the 4th century onwards, and European soldiers drafted into Mongol armies in the 13th century who later took part in the Mongol invasion of China.

With regard to Christian missionaries in China, I've read a fascinating book titled "The Jesus Sutras" which suggests that a version of Christianity which had been strongly influenced by Buddhism was introduced into China in about the 7th century. Descendents of Chinese converts were later discovered by European missionaries travelling to China in the 16th century, although the Chinese had only the vaguest understanding of the religion.

Thanks Peter B, that was really interesting to read... but, Why did Marcus Crassus lead an army to invade Parthia? And going off what you said, Parthia seemed strong, how did nomads take over?

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Thanks to my interest in ancients wargaming I've acquired an interest in ancient and medieval history from around the world.

For me, one of the interesting and intriguing mysteries is how much direct contact there was between the Greco-Roman and Chinese cultures. We know, for example, that two Roman traders in the early 2nd century made it all the way to China by sea, where they were introduced to the then Chinese Emperor. But nothing came of the contact. Likewise, about two centuries earlier a Chinese delegation made it across Central Asia perhaps as far as the Caspian Sea, with the intention of going to Rome, but were deflected from that by the Parthians who sat in between Rome and China and who profited from the mutual trade.

But in between these two journeys is another story that the Chinese like to trot out occasionally. In 53BC the fabulously rich Roman businessman and politician, Marcus Crassus, led an army to invade Parthia. The result was a disaster. Crassus was killed, along with something like 15,000 men in his army. The Parthians captured another 10,000 soldiers, who they planted as military colonists on their north-eastern frontier, facing Central Asia. From here things get hazy. Supposedly about a decade later an army of Central Asian nomads attacked that part of Parthia, capturing these men and taking them back into Central Asia. The nomads then attacked a city at the western edge of the Chinese Empire, and deposited the men there. The Chinese then counter-attacked, recaptured the town, and captured the soldiers. They were then settled somewhere in China, where they retained a distinctive culture for a couple of centuries. Did this actually happen? I don't know but it would be great if it were possible to find out.

Now versions of the story suggest that Chinese authorities today have conducted DNA tests which show certain populations have characteristics in common with Europeans, implying there's some truth to the story. But the problem is that, even if these results are true, there's no way of being sure the characteristics were introduced by Crassus's hapless veterans. There were other occasions when Europeans travelled to China after the fall of the Roman Empire, such as Christian missionaries from the 4th century onwards, and European soldiers drafted into Mongol armies in the 13th century who later took part in the Mongol invasion of China.

With regard to Christian missionaries in China, I've read a fascinating book titled "The Jesus Sutras" which suggests that a version of Christianity which had been strongly influenced by Buddhism was introduced into China in about the 7th century. Descendents of Chinese converts were later discovered by European missionaries travelling to China in the 16th century, although the Chinese had only the vaguest understanding of the religion.

I also enjoy ancient wargaming!...

One thing I always found interesting, yet have found scant actual info on (and am either too busy or too lazy to dig for ) are the accounts of a proto-Celtic "outpost" along the Silk road between Europe and China...

The article I read (a long time ago), mentioned very early evidence of horse domestication, and the bodies found had distinctive European features and DNA (either very close to or related to some of the

early Celtic haplotypes)... This outpost was dated (IIRC) to very early bronze age...

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For those who do not know about the Mary Celeste; here is a brief summary.

The Disappearance of the Mary Celeste: The Mary Celeste was a British-American merchant brigantine famous for having been discovered on 4 December 1872 in the Atlantic Ocean, unmanned and apparently abandoned (one lifeboat was missing, along with its crew of seven), although the weather was fine and her crew had been experienced and capable seamen. The Mary Celeste was in seaworthy condition and still under sail heading toward the Strait of Gibraltar. She had been at sea for a month and had over six months’ worth of food and water on board. Her cargo was virtually untouched and the crew’s personal belongings were still in place, including valuables. None of those on board were ever seen or heard from again, and their disappearance is often cited as the greatest maritime mystery of all time. The Mary Celeste, with a history of misfortune, was said to be “cursed” even before she was discovered derelict with no apparent explanation, a classic ghost ship.

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D.B Cooper, was baffling! an unidentified man who hijacked a Boeing 727 aircraft in the airspace between Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington, on November 24, 1971, extorted $200,000 in ransom, and parachuted to an uncertain fate. Despite an extensive manhunt and an ongoing FBI investigation, the perpetrator has never been located or positively identified. The case remains the only unsolved air piracy in American aviation history. The discovery of a small cache of ransom bills in 1980 triggered renewed interest but ultimately only deepened the mystery, and the great majority of the ransom remains unrecovered...

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The Tomb of Genghis Khan: Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings. After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in the Khentii Aimag, where many assume he is buried somewhere close to the Onon River. According to one legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything that crossed their path, in order to conceal where he was finally buried. After the tomb was completed, the slaves who built it were massacred, and then the soldiers who killed them were also killed. The Genghis Khan Mausoleum is his memorial, but not his burial site. The location of his burial to this day still remains a mystery. ... This always fascinated me as well.. Can you imagine what Genghis Khan was buried with? The treasures would be baffling.

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The Tomb of Genghis Khan: Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings. After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in the Khentii Aimag, where many assume he is buried somewhere close to the Onon River. According to one legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything that crossed their path, in order to conceal where he was finally buried. After the tomb was completed, the slaves who built it were massacred, and then the soldiers who killed them were also killed. The Genghis Khan Mausoleum is his memorial, but not his burial site. The location of his burial to this day still remains a mystery. ... This always fascinated me as well.. Can you imagine what Genghis Khan was buried with? The treasures would be baffling.

Alexander the Greats tomb has also never been found - at least as far as I can recall...

Another seldom discussed historical event that interests me is the voyage of Hanno the Navigator... One of the earliest recorded voyages of discovery (if not THE earliest)... He left Carthage about 500 BC with a fleet of ships and around 25,000 'colonists'... The mission was to explore the African Atlantic coast, and to found colonies for Carthage... No one really knows how far along the coast they got, but at least as far as Modern Senegal, perhaps as far as to Gabon, Sierra Leone or Cameroon... Also his expedition may have been the first Europeans to encoounter Gorillas...

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Alexander the Greats tomb has also never been found - at least as far as I can recall...

Another seldom discussed historical event that interests me is the voyage of Hanno the Navigator... One of the earliest recorded voyages of discovery (if not THE earliest)... He left Carthage about 500 BC with a fleet of ships and around 25,000 'colonists'... The mission was to explore the African Atlantic coast, and to found colonies for Carthage... No one really knows how far along the coast they got, but at least as far as Modern Senegal, perhaps as far as to Gabon, Sierra Leone or Cameroon... Also his expedition may have been the first Europeans to encoounter Gorillas...

Very interesting I did not know that. More about Hanno, There seems to be some agreement that he could have reached Gambia. However, Harden mentions lack of agreement as to precisely where to locate the farthest limit of Hanno's explorations: Sierra Leone, Cameroon, Gabon. He notes the description of Mount Cameroon, a 4,040-metre (13,250 ft) volcano, more closely matches Hanno's description than Guinea's 890-metre (2,920 ft) Mount Kakulima. Warmington prefers Mount Kakulima, considering Mount Cameroon too distant...

Ya Alexander the Great tomb hasnt been found, although there is that one picture I see on the internet of a big tomb and its stated its Alexander the Greats, but I dont think it is.... Attilla the Hun was another tomb that wasnt found, the legend, and way of burial is much like Ghengis Khans.

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I think we may be seeing "unknown history" through the lens of different generators.

Lucid, the things you're posting are perfectly familiar to me -- not through Unexplained Mysteries and similar forums, but possibly because I'm much older and read about them decades ago. I think they're sort of "standard wow" things on forums -- that the younger (35 and younger) generation thinks are astonishing and the rest of us just think are "old hat."

The things that Peter B is posting though -- that's new to me. I've a good grasp of history in many areas (and a good grasp of other things) but that was something I'd never explored in any depth.

Something I wasn't aware of is that there is a body of evidence (including deliberately desecrated tombs) that Pharaoh Teti was assassinated by members of his court AND possibly his own bodyguard.

Egyptian History Podcast (episode 18) (these are short podcasts) covers the main evidence from an Egyptologist's poing of view.

http://egyptianhistory.libsyn.com/webpage/page/2

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I think we may be seeing "unknown history" through the lens of different generators.

Lucid, the things you're posting are perfectly familiar to me -- not through Unexplained Mysteries and similar forums, but possibly because I'm much older and read about them decades ago. I think they're sort of "standard wow" things on forums -- that the younger (35 and younger) generation thinks are astonishing and the rest of us just think are "old hat."

The things that Peter B is posting though -- that's new to me. I've a good grasp of history in many areas (and a good grasp of other things) but that was something I'd never explored in any depth.

Something I wasn't aware of is that there is a body of evidence (including deliberately desecrated tombs) that Pharaoh Teti was assassinated by members of his court AND possibly his own bodyguard.

Egyptian History Podcast (episode 18) (these are short podcasts) covers the main evidence from an Egyptologist's poing of view.

http://egyptianhisto.../webpage/page/2

Your point about 'old hat' stories is interesting to me. I grew up learning these token mysteries (Mary Celeste, Oak Island, etc) through various Unexplained Mysteries books and compendiums, and thus they became this foundational mythos almost, that most people interested in alternative narratives knew.

I think the internet generation has more freedom to pick and choose the information they pursue, so as a result younger people may be missing some of these 'old hat' stories, because the older crowd doesn't discuss them frequently. They are well-trod ground and so little more will come from us discussing it yet again.

The point is, I think it's very cool that a whole new generation of thinkers will learn about Oak Island, Madame Blavatsky, and Synchronicity online and with dynamic conversations about the topics, not just single-point of view writings in a book.

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Posted (edited)

Thanks Peter B, that was really interesting to read... but, Why did Marcus Crassus lead an army to invade Parthia?

You're welcome.

Crassus's invasion was essentially for fun and profit. Crassus was the richest man in Rome in the 1st century BC, and continued to find ways to expand his wealth. For example, he owned a fire brigade, and when he heard a building was on fire, he'd send the fire brigade with instructions to ask to buy the place at a knock-down price. If the owner refused the fire brigade did nothing.

Anyway, he'd had himself appointed Governor of Syria, which was essentially a licence to mint money. The problem was that he was in an informal political alliance with Pompey and Caesar, and wanted to experience some military victories like them. As Parthia was adjacent to Syria, and even richer than Syria, an invasion of Parthia promised both money and fame.

So he raised an army of eight legions (about 40,000 legionaries) plus some cavalry and light infantry, at his own expense, and headed off to Parthia. His parting shot was that no man could call himself rich unless he could raise an army out of his own wealth. Apparently the Senate wasn't thrilled at Crassus's expedition. They were all for bringing the benefits of Roman rule to everyone by conquering them, but they usually managed to find an excuse to justify attacking their neighbours. Crassus, by contrast, gave none.

Pretty much as soon as the army cross the frontier it came under attack by an army a quarter the size of his own - 10,000 horse archers and 1000 cataphracts (heavily armoured riders on heavily armoured horses). The cataphracts kept the Roman cavalry occupied while the horse archers picked away at the legionaries. Over the course of a couple of days discipline slipped and eventually collapsed. Something like 15,000 Romans made it back to Syria, led by a guy called Cassius, who was to make himself famous for other matters in years to come.

And going off what you said, Parthia seemed strong, how did nomads take over?

Parthian society was essentially feudal. The nobility provided the cataphracts and their vassals were the horse archers. But the nature of feudal society means you don't have permanent military forces. In addition, the Parthian army was ideally suited to defeating an army consisting mostly of plodding heavy infantry. By contrast, the nomad army would have had a similar composition to the Parthian army. It's therefore not surprising that a nomad swoop on a distant province could be briefly successful; it probably wasn't an attempt at a conquest but rather a raid in strength, in search of pillage.

Edited by Peter B
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Posted (edited)

By the way, if you want a topical historical controversy, try Tom Holland's book "The Shadow of the Sword". It's about the origins of Islam, and it upends a lot of accepted stories about the first century or so of the Caliphate.

Edited by Peter B
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Thanks Peter all very interesting.

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I also enjoy ancient wargaming!...

*waves*

Well, hello there! DBMM player here (http://www.dbmm.org.uk/)/

One thing I always found interesting, yet have found scant actual info on (and am either too busy or too lazy to dig for ) are the accounts of a proto-Celtic "outpost" along the Silk road between Europe and China...

The article I read (a long time ago), mentioned very early evidence of horse domestication, and the bodies found had distinctive European features and DNA (either very close to or related to some of the

early Celtic haplotypes)... This outpost was dated (IIRC) to very early bronze age...

Not something I'm familiar with, sorry. I've heard of the Tocharians, who were Indo-Europeans who lived in Central Asia many centuries BC. But while I have a vague memory that some Tocharian mummies have been found with red hair, this was a more generally Indo-European feature rather than a specifically Celtic feature.

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New DNA evidence abou tthe Paracas Elongated Skulls.. http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/02/12/dna-analysis-of-paracas-elongated-skulls-released-unknown-to-any-human-primate-or-animal/

Paracas is located in the Pisco Province in the Inca Region on the Southern coast of Peru. Home of the ground breaking discovery in 1928 by Julio Tello of a massive graveyard containing tombs filled with the remains of individuals with elongated skulls, now known as the famous Paracas Skulls.

The pictures always blow me away, the shapes of the skulls. Most people say that they were head-dresses worn to tight or what not. But the shapes of these skulls, in my opinion are beyond anything a tight headband worn for years could do.

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New DNA evidence abou tthe Paracas Elongated Skulls.. http://www.collectiv...mate-or-animal/

Paracas is located in the Pisco Province in the Inca Region on the Southern coast of Peru. Home of the ground breaking discovery in 1928 by Julio Tello of a massive graveyard containing tombs filled with the remains of individuals with elongated skulls, now known as the famous Paracas Skulls.

The pictures always blow me away, the shapes of the skulls. Most people say that they were head-dresses worn to tight or what not. But the shapes of these skulls, in my opinion are beyond anything a tight headband worn for years could do.

I don't have a major problem with it. Consider what could be achieved with Chinese foot binding, which didn't break any bones but merely deformed them. For that matter, consider how much a baby's head can deform during birth (I used to call my oldest son Hexagon Head because of its distinctive shape for a few months after his birth).

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