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IgnoranceIsntBliss

And you thought AI sounded scary?

26 posts in this topic

Biological brain computers now exist, here is my “theory”, proven and outlined below, AI is now obsolete: we now have RealIntelligence. We now have these biological computers that the government is about to build(grow) in massive sizes, on a massive scale, into massive networks. There’s no other source on the web detailing even half of this, check it out:

"Brain" in a dish acts as autopilot, living computer.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

Lab Mice Grow Human Brain Cells After Injections.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...4AA3D6B28904897

Mankinds greatest achievement, current technology, that you didnt hear about.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...b6-e5a01226f937

The disregarded NASA Google takeover, to build biological computers.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...711A4DB16885171

"Brain" in a dish acts as autopilot, living computer.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...711A4DB16885171

NASA's "Intelligent Archive"

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

DARPA's "Bio-Revolution"

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

NASA's Smoking Gun

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

***Exposing the Federal Biorevolution Manifesto***

This should interest anyone, of any background or country.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

Brain neurons "Assembly Line"

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...4AA3D6B28904897

Single Brain Cells Can Think, super intelligence computers is no longer a theory.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...4AA3D6B28904897

Even AI Scientists recognize that society has to be aware of the issue. AI is now DEAD, obsolete, and nobody has a clue.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...2EF454D19304165

DARPA + NASA

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

***NSF: "Wiring the Brain at the Nanoscale"***

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

**Neural Implants: Past, Present & Future PART1**

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

**Neural Implants: Past, Present & Future PART2**

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

The remote controlled humans of the 60's

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

The Senate, the Biochip and the Digital Angel

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...4AA3D6B28904897

NASA takes yet more interest in civilian affairs, satellite tracking with RFID.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...4AA3D6B28904897

The System overveiw. (Needs updating with my new findings but it's still rather acurate._

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...1F7AB1642428390

****NEU-ARK GENESIS II - Exposing The One World Relgion****

This should interest anyone, of any background or religion.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...58BA5CC96258177

Even Sony wants to jact us inter "The Matrix".

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...4AA3D6B28904897

The Beast's intergration of the ECHELON system.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...95078<br>

Just another example of the NSF's goals to interface into our brains. THeres too many of these to list.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...2EF454D19304165

The cashless Society is already underway.

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...A42971541695078

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We'd have to be more afraid of biological computers because they would have feelings!

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Question is - is it a good or bad thing?

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I'd say this is a bad thing......

Remember all the movies where computers take over??!! Like The Matrix and Ghost in the Shell. :P

I don't even understand the use of creating bio computers anyway

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They're using myspace....

How cute, and slightly annoying.

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I hope they name one 'Skynet'. That should be quite entertaining. :P

Edited by T-Nemesis

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I hope they name one 'Skynet'. That should be quite entertaining. :P

Strange...that's what I thought....

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Ignorance, you gotta be kidding.

You post a link toa BLOG... your OWN blog...and expect us to BELIEVE what it says? I could start a blog right now, saying that the stuff that fell out of my bottom a couple hours ago while I was sitting on the toilet is actually proof of advanced life on Rigel-4. That doesn't make it TRUE!

Blogs CAN be truthful - they can also be completely whacked.

Guess what category this stuff falls into? I put them into the same category as the blogs that say that by me spanking a midget, I will grow a full head of hair. Next time, try news or science sites, and you will get a better reception.

Edited by Malruhn

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added it to favorites to look more into later. on the surface, looks I agree with alot of what you're saying here. thanks for postin.

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Ignorance, you gotta be kidding.

You post a link toa BLOG... your OWN blog...and expect us to BELIEVE what it says? I could start a blog right now, saying that the stuff that fell out of my bottom a couple hours ago while I was sitting on the toilet is actually proof of advanced life on Rigel-4. That doesn't make it TRUE!

Blogs CAN be truthful - they can also be completely whacked.

Guess what category this stuff falls into? I put them into the same category as the blogs that say that by me spanking a midget, I will grow a full head of hair. Next time, try news or science sites, and you will get a better reception.

So your only arguement is that it from my blog? That FREE blogs is actually pretty cool, I can paste directly into it (usually) easily, and its free. It also gives me the oppritunity to get the info to people that normally wouldnt ever come across it.

People can be intelligent - they can also completely lack vision and worship ignorance.

That puts you into the ignorant skeptinazi category.

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Let's stop with the name calling and insults, Mahlrun and IgnoranceIsntBliss. :huh:

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watch Ghost in the Shell 2, its basicaly a mad homage to Bladerunner. Sums up a lot of stuff.

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Let's stop with the name calling and insults, Mahlrun and IgnoranceIsntBliss. :huh:

Really tho ignorance isnt too bad, its nto the same as stupidity, ignorance can be cured quite easily but theres no cure for being stupid.

The skeptinazi term is something i havent posted about here, yet. It's the term I coined for what I've identified as skeptinazi ideology, for lack of a better term. Basiaclly its the opposite of the extreme parnoid kook. The people who refuse to believe anything no matter how much evidence; they dismiss every single piece of evidence and call the person a paranoid kook even when theyre not competant enuff to debunk it. I'll post about it in another section later lol.

I apologize anyways tho. And sorry for "spamming", i posted a few of my links before in my older thread, didnt get any static so i figured you guys are cool unlike the people running ATS- who delete the entire thread and threaten to ban you and tell you that you cant paste the content in either to present your theory or facts.

This subject is so huge it's getting impossbile to post the entire content all into one thread. Thats why I started this new one, anyone jumping in the old one would have to go thru pages of ridiculous outdated debate to get to where the coverage begins again.

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I decided to contact the top neuro-cogno scientist, Professor Christof Koch, with key questions about consciousness. These questions will also help me resolve many other aspects of the overall capability of these brains. As soon as I get a response I'll post it up, and then promptly finish my thesis, to submit into the Mind-X forums at KurzweilAI.com.

I emailed him on Sat. 1-21, and recieved an auto-response, saying he'd be abck Mon., havent recieved any response. Firgures he was in Washington DC. I'll keep ya guys posted.

Hello Professor Koch,

I have some questions about consciousness, and from all of my research you seem to be the exact man to answer these questions. Out of all of the numerous papers I’ve read, you’re the foremost expert on this most complicated subject.

My approach to understanding consciousness, and the ability to think, is to think in terms of a large brain, which was born without a body. This brain doesn’t have any senses, motor functions or anything like that to initially worry about. This brain wouldn’t have a cerebellum or cerebral trunk. This brain would be the same size as say your brain, or at least the same volume of neurons. For this theory we’ll say that it doesn’t have any of the numerous regions or “parts” like a human brain (thalamus, hippocampus, etc). At its “birth”, it’s somewhat like a blob of neurons. Despite that, we’ll just say it still has the same amount of neurons to compensate. We would gradually give it certain senses or interfaces, but not all the things required for a human body.

1. Consciousness

My research seems to imply that consciousness is based on experience. Would you say that’s true? My point is would the brain have any thoughts if it never had any experiences? No sense of input, no knowledge. Wouldn’t that make it a bunch of blank neurons, waiting for things to learn about?

Now we’ll give it some senses, we’ll hook it into an flight simulator. At first the brain wouldn’t know anything, but as it “experienced” and “practiced” it gradually learned how to maintain the “aircraft”. Although its thoughts would be limited to its experiences with the flight sim, wouldn’t this mean that the brain now has a conscious? When the computer/flight sim wasn’t active would it still have consciousness? Do you think it would be waiting for the flight sim to come back on, since it wouldn’t know about anything else, or would it be in blank mode having no input?

If the flight sim “work” didn’t require the full use of its available neurons, would those excess neurons remain in hibernation until their use was required? Or would the brain utilize those to do a better job in the only work it knew about at this point?

Assuming its flight sim experiences indeed gave a limited consciousness, wouldn’t its consciousness be expanded if we gave it more information and other experiences?

2. Intelligence

The first question, to help my understanding, is approximately what percentage of the human brain is devoted to motor functions (not including the cerebellum and cerebral trunk) and the combination of our senses? I know that the “we only use 10% of our brains” is myth, but there has to be some percentage of it that is typically allocated to actual thinking.

I know that an extensive amount of the brain is for memorizing and controlling our various physiological elements of our bodies including life support, and our “conscious” motor functions. I have seen some papers and books try to explain the percentage, but I seek your expert opinion on it.

Considering that, now lets think about what it would mean if the entire brains resources were available for intelligence, thinking and whatever tasks we could give it, beside body/motor tasks. We would interface it with electronics hardware, dedicated to performing all of its “hearing” or “seeing”, which wouldn’t be for actual ears or eyes but rather just for if we wanted it to be able to “view” any sort of “media”. We wouldn’t need for it to actually see or hear, we’d only need for it to be able to analyze these types of information. Presumably, the combined effect would free up more neuron resources for other tasks. Surely neurons would be used for connecting the equipment, and networks would be formed for analyzing the data, but it would seem that it would still free up more brain power, than if these things were wired into it the same way a human brain is “wired”.

3. Development

Now if we compare this brain to a human brain,

C. Would that mean that this brain would have superior thinking capabilities than our own? Since people who are born blind hear better than everybody else, that would seem to be the case, simply because there would be all of those available neurons, but there wouldn’t be any required for operating a body, and we freed up more resources by utilizing the electronics equipment.

D. During the neural network development stages, couldn’t we design better thinking capabilities by limiting and influencing the types of “senses” that this brain would utilize?

E. This brain would lack all of the brain “parts” that we utilize, but would it really need parts like the amygdala, hippocampus or thalamus for consciousness and intelligence?

It doesn’t really seem like it would, it seems to me that the brain would be like a giant frontal lobe, except it wouldn’t even be concerned with motor functions.

F. Would the brains be able to fear or have any sort of emotions without parts like the amygdala?

G. With proper development and equipment usage, wouldn’t we be able make up for missing parts like the hippocampus?

From : Christof_Koch

Sent : Saturday, January 21, 2006 7:34 PM

To : ignoranceisntbliss@hotmail.com

This is an automatic email reply.

Sorry, but I am in Washington DC for the next several days. I'll be back at Caltech on Monday, January 23. I will only have sporadic access to email until then. For anythinn important, please email my assistant, Ms. Heather Hein, at heather@klab.caltech.edu

Live long and prosper.

Christof Koch

=====================================================

Dr. Christof Koch

Lois and Victor Troendle Professor of Cognitive and Behavioral Biology

California Institute of Technology

Division of Biology, 139-74

Caltech

1200 E. California Blvd.

Pasadena, CA 91125

FAX: (626) 796-8876

email:

koch@klab.caltech.edu

Web:

www.klab.caltech.edu

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Hey everyone, I'm getting ready to be on RevereRadioNetwork.com tonight Wed Feb 22 at 12AM EST.

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in The Halo books, they had Biological AI's that would ultimately learn themselves to death and then realise how much power they had over us Humans.

yeah, I know its Sci-Fi, but its a great possibility if we allow a Biological bieng to be interfaced with our supercomputers. whereas AI's we can control. (see "I,Robots" 3 laws)

a biological bieng we would have little to no control over since it would have emotions. :hmm:

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Wow, this is all fascinating. I'll have to read this more indepth, once I have more time.

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Hopefully they will only stick with rat cells, not human or anything close to smart enough to actualy turn on us.

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We'd have to be more afraid of biological computers because they would have feelings!

Not necessairly.

I don't even understand the use of creating bio computers anyway

Well, its a technological advancement. Bio computers can do many things that abiological computers cant. Compare your brain to a computer. Sure, the computer is more efficient at some things... but, well, lets use dreams for example. All that scenery, situation and all is created by your brain, on the spot, with such detail. A computer cant handle that yet.

Really tho ignorance isnt too bad, its nto the same as stupidity, ignorance can be cured quite easily but theres no cure for being stupid.

Ignorance is ignoring clear evidence of something. Your blog provides no evidence, therefor, ignoring your blog is not synonymous to ignorance.

The people who refuse to believe anything no matter how much evidence

You provide no evidence in a blog though.

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If you could provide one link to a reliable news article on the subject it would be more easily believed.

If this is true, you are doing the world a great service by stockpiling this information.

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Not necessairly.

Well, its a technological advancement. Bio computers can do many things that abiological computers cant. Compare your brain to a computer. Sure, the computer is more efficient at some things... but, well, lets use dreams for example. All that scenery, situation and all is created by your brain, on the spot, with such detail. [/q]

My recent neuron argument:

“Hawkins focuses mainly on the cortex, the most evolutionarily recent part of the brain.

the cortex, in his view, uses memory rather than computation to solve problems. Consider the problem of catching a ball. A robotic arm might be programmed for this task, but achieving it is extremely difficult and involves reams of calculations. The brain, by contrast, draws upon stored memories of how to catch a ball, modifying those memories to suit the particular conditions each time a ball is thrown. “

“The cortex also uses memories to make predictions. It is engaged in constant, mostly unconscious prediction about everything we observe. When something happens that varies from prediction—if you detect an unusual motion, say, or an odd texture—it is passed up to a higher level in the cortex’s hierarchy of neurons. The new memories are then parlayed into further predictions. Prediction, in Hawkins’ telling, is the sine qua non of intelligence. To understand something is to be able to make predictions about it.”

http://www.reason.com/0504/cr.ks.are.shtml

“Apparently, neurons, themselves the tools of learning, smartly synthesize proteins where they are needed. Two recent publications demonstrate that neurons are capable of localized translation in dendrites and in axons.”

http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/158/5/831

Are you going to argue with Christof Koch?

“From the perspective of Christof Koch’s Biophysics of Computation the situation is quite different. A neuron can no longer be viewed as a single switch; it is more or less analogous to an integrated circuit chip.”

http://www.klab.caltech.edu/~koch/bioph......view-scott.html

Neurons aren’t powerful or unique? Neurons aren’t feasible? Conventional technologies will give us cognitive computing first, you say?

1. If we had a silicon chip that had as many ‘connections’ would it become intelligent? No. In neuronss the “software” and the “ROM memory” are built in, even the RAM seems to be. There are certain areas or ‘parts’ that play important roles in consciousness, that wouldn’t exist in a puddle or blob of neurons, but the fact remains that the power is in those neurons. Neurons process and they store memories. How do memory capabilities fit into the mathematical model of trying to replicate “neuron power”?

2. It’s suggested that glial cells even help electrically ‘compute’, and it isn’t known how significant their function is. How do glial cells fit into the mathematical model of trying to replicate “neuron power”?

3. Does anyone think that we will ever have self-repairing silicon chips? Neuron networks self-repair, and self-form, which would take serious overhead of the software from the hardware. DARPA does have 3D chips in its thrust, but silicon chips are still flat for a reason.

4. Neurons grow in different shapes & sizes, with varying amounts & lengths of dendrites and axons. Why wouldn’t they all be exactly the same if they aren’t special? How do rearranging, growing/stretching and expanding cells, with synaptic plasticity, fit into the mathematical model of trying to replicate “neuron power”?

5. It’s suggested that neuron dendrites and axons reverse fire. How does that fit into the model?

6. Neuron can have up to roughly 100,000 dendrtic synapses, with multi-connected axons. How does that fit into the model? How big can this model get until we decide to just use neurons instead?

7. Conventional computers use base 2 binary, and neurons are analog of about 25KHz. How much conventional CPU and RAM overhead will It consume to crunch base 25K over base 2 (not even counting all of the other dynamics of neurons)?

8. Memories and synaptic weights involve biochemistry. How does that fit into the ‘simple’ model?

http://cbcl.mit.edu/cbcl/news/files/kreiman-hogan-5-05.htm

9. Right now we’re (publicly) using rat brain neuron networks to study neural processing and cognition. This appears to be a step in surpassing human cognition. The NSF has awarded Demarse $500,000 to take his F22 brain findings, and research, to attempt to build a mathematical model of neuron networks. While those “loose” findings would be important for progress, rat brain neuron nets are still nothing like humans. Not in neuron types/capacity, or brain complexity.

10. We still don’t know exactly what goes on inside the neuron, yet you describe them as being ‘simple’…

Considering 1-10 (I’m sure there’s some things I missed), it seems obvious that trying to build a mathematical model of the brain’s neuron ‘computing’ processes, and trying to program that into hardware, would go against Occam’s Razor. All I see an “s curve” to reaching the capability of proper neuron firing and ‘programming’ to ultimately reach super intelligence. Our brains with their “simple neurons” already spank any computer out there in intelligence and cognition (at least from an unclassified standpoint), and a great deal of the brain is used for body motor and life support systems – things these computers won’t need, and would have all the hardware extras that our brains don’t.

If we can perfect it then we can grow them in larger scales, and get both ‘hardware’ and ‘software’ coupled inside of each ‘processor’. They’re already devoting significant computers to their efforts, this would be a matter of converting those over to “data acquisition hardware” and building cube shaped “brains” that have massive bio-silicon interface chips (better than massive mea’s, must I explain?) on all sides; they could even do more extravagant geometric shapes using silicon.. How isn’t it more feasible to choose neurons over conventional technologies, for cognitive computing?

They could go rather far with this, using some current technologies alone. 1. They could start with "Doogie" strains of rats or mice, which have increased learning and memory abilities. 2. Then, they could humanize them using stem cell treatments. This doesn’t actually humanize all of the cells but rather sprouts human cells in mix. 3. An important key is whether or not spindle or mirror neurons can be harvested like this. 4. If so they could then use developing “assembly line” technology to clone those cells in large scales giving them superior processor media. 5. Advanced Nootropic drugs and bioengineering can further enhance cognitive capabilities.

http://www.princeton.edu/pr/news/99/q3/0902-smart.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindle_neuron

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/co......5121201388.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1308732.stm

It wont ruin their goal even if #3 above isn’t possible, for at least two reasons. First, they’ll have advanced rat-human chimæra neuron media, that includes more powerful rat cells in the mix. Second, they can simply use “suspended animation” technology to harvest live human brains which would give them significant amounts of spindle and mirror neurons, to name two. Do you have "Organ Donor" checked on your license? Do ethical laws apply to people that do?

http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/...nition/CHIMAERA

http://smh.com.au/news/health-and-fitne......553739997.html#

Ignorance is ignoring clear evidence of something. Your blog provides no evidence, therefor, ignoring your blog is not synonymous to ignorance.

You provide no evidence in a blog though.

Well, I suppose I havent directly proven that they do do it but I've demonstrated the MEA / neuron technology and proof of intent to do such a thing.

What proof would you really like though?

MEA’s:

http://www.mcs-download.com/download_data/.../MEA_Manual.pdf

http://www.bio.dibe.unige.it/publications/...apri%202003.pdf

http://www.its.caltech.edu/~pinelab/wagena...urstcontrol.pdf

http://www.neuro.gatech.edu/groups/potter/...atorReprint.pdf

http://www.nih.knaw.nl/~jaapvanpelt/papers...sB(inpress).pdf

Purchase MEA's:

http://www.alascience.com/products/mcs_arrays.html

http://www.biocell-interface.com/

http://soma.npa.uiuc.edu/labs/wheeler/NELUIUC1.htm

http://www.neuroexplorer.com/

http://www.multichannelsystems.com/

http://www.ayanda-biosys.com

http://www.med64.com/

http://www.xensei.com/users/chi/2001/mfj/

http://www.nmi.de/deutsch/showprj.php3?id=22&bereich=1&typ=1

http://www.plexoninc.com/

http://www.cyberkineticsinc.com/

http://www.funetics.com/html/details_hw_prod.htm

Purchase Rat Brains / Neurons:

http://www.genlantis.com/Primary-Cells/Rat-Neuronal-Cells

http://www.biocompare.com/matrix/14266/Rat-Cell-Lines.html

http://www.brainbitsllc.com/index.asp?Page...CATS&Category=6

http://www.gene-ethics-asia.com/main2.php

http://neuromics.com/ittrium/visit?path=A1...xe31x1y1x10eax1

‘Yuck Factor’ and Stem Cell Sources:

http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,178498,00.html Lab Mice Grow Human Brain Cells After Injections)

http://www.princeton.edu/pr/news/99/q3/0902-smart.htm “Doogie” smart genetically engineered mice strain

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1308732.stm Stem Cells Grown From Dead Bodies

http://smh.com.au/news/health-and-fitness/...553739997.html# Reanimation

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7506860/ National Cord Blood Bank

http://www.physiciansforlife.ca/stemcells.html Abortions

Neuron Achievments:

http://www.wireheading.com/article/hybrots.html Hybrot

http://web.mit.edu/shkolnik/www/publications/BICS_2004.pdf Hybrot

http://www.dice.ucl.ac.be/Proceedings/esan.../es2004-187.pdf Neural Hardware

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/...41022104658.htm F22 Brain

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=%...%22&btnG=Search

http://www.bme.ufl.edu/documents/the_neurally_10.pdf Animat

http://web.mit.edu/shkolnik/www/projects/neurobot.pdf Animat

http://brc.technion.ac.il/QRB.pdf Learning

http://web.mit.edu/shkolnik/www/Potter/pos...eart-poster.pdf MEART

http://web.mit.edu/shkolnik/www/projects/neurobot.pdf

http://www.fishandchips.uwa.edu.au/project...-%20biofeel.pdf MEART

Some Quotes:

"Animats are artificial animals. The term includes physical robots and virtual simulations. Animat research, a subset of Artificial Life studies, has become rather popular since Rodney Brooks' seminal paper "Intelligence without reason". The word was coined by S.W. Wilson in 1991."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animat

Neurally Controlled Simulated Robot: Applying Cultured Neurons to Handle an Approach / Avoidance Task in Real Time and a Framework for Studying Learning in Vitro

http://web.mit.edu/shkolnik/www/projects/neurobot.pdf :

“One of the main benefits of living neural networks as opposed to digital computing is a built in ability to learn based on experience. When learning occurs, synaptic weights adjust (often referred to as synaptic plasticity) and thenceforth the system‘s behavior changes even if given the same input conditions as before the learning had occurred. Finite State Automata theory breaks down when trying to emulate neural learning, because the neurons can —rewire“ themselves automatically, thus changing the possible states the system may enter on a given input. Any change in synaptic weights may therefore be considered a doubling of the states in the automaton. If one tries to emulate learning to infinite precision (since the synaptic weights are analog), one may realize that the living neural network may actually have an infinite number of states. Though neural networks are chaotic systems, infinite precision is probably not required to model an analog synapse. Even so, the number of finite states that a network of neurons may enter may be unreasonably many to consider with standard automata theory. Given that learning may increase the processing power of living neuronal networks”

...

"In this project, I showed that probing with varying delay between the probes produces a predictable non-linear response. I showed how to emulate digital logic using such a response, thus proving that cultured neurons can theoretically execute a computer program with polynomial slow-down. I then applied the living neurons to handle a more interesting real-world problem in real-time. In this project an animat was created that combines a living neural network with a virtual body in an effort to create a system where the living neural network could be studied. The animat was successful at tracking and maintaining distance from a reference object, which can be considered both an approach and avoidance task. Part of the robustness of the animat in the current project is that it reacts more strongly when necessary to correct for error. Thus, if it has an error on some trial, the error will not be fatal because in the next trial it will make up for it. The animat in this project is unique because I am replacing algorithmic components of control with neural computation. In the animat, sensory information is encoded into stimulus information, which induces a given reaction in the neural network. The behavior of the animat is determined solely on this neural response There is no algorithmic component converting sensory information into animat movement. Thus, the animat demonstrates some of the computational power of cultured cortical neurons. Furthermore, the animat provides a scheme for testing the effects of plasticity in cultured neurons, and these effects are visible through quantifiable measurements of robotic behavior. The animat opens the door for additional experiments, both to determine interesting robotic behavior, such as tracking and following a moving reference object, and to determine the effects of varying types of plasticity that may be induced. One may ask the question, —how much intelligence does the animat display?“ An in-depth philosophical discussion of this topic is beyond the scope of this thesis, but one should consider that the animat is handling a relatively difficult approach / avoidance task in real-time. A truly intelligent machine should of course be able to handle a variety of tasks, including tasks that it has never faced before. To accomplish such a goal, more complex sensory information needs to be encoded (rather than simply the direction and distance of a single object within the environment). Thus, an important future direction in the development of this animat may involve the utilization of additional channels for stimulation. I hope that the animat built in this project is at the beginning of its development cycle. In the near future, the animat can be converted into a real robot fairly simply. Small changes, such as improvements to the mapping schemes to make them more dynamic can improve the performance of the animat. For example, with each step the animat takes, the individual channel histograms used for lock/key decoding may be slightly modified. This will take into account any slight —drift“ in precisely timed spikes over time."

Removing some ‘A’ from AI: Embodied Cultured Networks

http://www.neuro.gatech.edu/groups/potter/...kumpreprint.pdf

“We wish to continue this trend by studying the network processing of ensembles of living neurons that lead to higher-level cognition and intelligent behavior.”

“A better understanding of the processes leading to biological cognition can, in turn, facilitate progress in understanding neural pathologies, designing neural prosthetics, and creating fundamentally different types of artificial inteligence.”

“By using biology directly, we hope to remove some of the 'A' from AI.”

“No one would argue that environmental interaction, or embodiment, is unimportant in the wiring of the brain; no one is born with the innate ability to ride a bicycle or solve algebraic equations. Practice is needed. An individual's unique environmental interactions lead to a continuous 'experience-dependent' wiring of the brain [1]. This makes evolutionary sense as it is helpful to learn new abilities throughout life: if there are some advantageous features of an organism that can be attained through learning, then the ability to learn such features can be established through evolution (the Baldwin effect) [2]. Thus, the ability to learn is innate (learning usually being defined as the acquisition of novel behavior through experience [3]). “

“We use biological neural networks not as substitutes to artificial neural networks, but to tease out the intricacies of biological processing to inform future development of artificial processing. In particular, we analyzed how the properties of neurons lead to real-time control and adaptation to novel environments.”

“New findings about the dynamics of living neural networks might be used to

design more biological, less artificial AI.“

“Environmental deprivation leads to abnormal brain structure and function, and environmental exposure shapes neural development. Similarly, patterned stimulation supplied to cultured neurons may lead to more robust network structure

and functioning than with trivial or no stimulation. The most dramatic examples of the importance of embodiment come from studies during development, when the brain is most malleable. “

Distributed processing in cultured neuronal networks

Steve M. Potter 2001

http://www.neuro.gatech.edu/groups/potter/...rocPreprint.pdf

“An embodied culture capable of behaving may then exhibit changes in behavior as a result of experience, that is, learning.”

Learning in Networks of Cortical Neurons

http://brc.technion.ac.il/learning.pdf

Goded Shahaf and Shimon Marom November 15, 2001

“Learning a new behavioral task is an exploration process that involves the formation and modulation of sets of associations between stimuli and responses“

“The experiments described above show that sufficient conditions for the realization of learning by a selection process, ithout the involvement of a neural rewarding entity, are embodied in large random networks of neurons maintained ex vivo. These networks form a large space of connectivity configurations that are stable over many hours. The connectivity can be modulated by external focal stimulation in an activity-dependent manner. Most importantly, the networks explore the space of possible responses and stabilize at configurations that remove the stimuli.”

“Specifically, we show that, during regular low-frequency stimulation, the network explores a large space of possible connections and can be instructed to select and stabilize one or a subset of them by withdrawing the stimulus at the point that the connection is observed.”

HYBROTS: HYBRIDS OF LIVING NEURONS AND ROBOTS FOR STUDYING NEURAL COMPUTATION

http://web.mit.edu/shkolnik/www/publications/BICS_2004.pdf

“By combining small networks of real brain cells, computer simulations, and robotics into new hybrid neural microsystems (which we call Hybrots), we hope to determine which neural properties are essential for the kinds of collective dynamics that might be used in artificially intelligent systems.”

“If we and others are successful with this new approach, we will learn the cell- and network-level substrates of memory, thought, and behavioral control, and may then be able to develop more brain-like artificial intelligences.”

TeraGrid:

http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=104248

http://kb.iu.edu/data/anag.html

http://www.teragrid.org/

http://www.npaci.edu/teragrid/

ASC:

http://www.llnl.gov/asci/pse_trilab/

http://www.sandia.gov/ASC/

Government Manifesto's:

http://www.wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies/

http://www.darpa.mil/body/pdf/BridgingTheGap_Feb_05.pdf

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/bica/index.htm

http://www.darpa.mil/BAA/pdfs/baa05-18pip.pdf

http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid...029246&from=rss

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/acip/index.htm

http://www.hpcuserforum.com/pdf/Graybill.pdf

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/real/index.htm

http://www.semgrid.net/Citation-Before-200...eedings-221.pdf

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/srs/index.htm

http://www.tolerantsystems.org/SRSProgram/PM%20Welcome.PPT

http://www.darpa.mil/

http://www.nano.gov/html/res/links.html

http://is.arc.nasa.gov/IDU/tasks/IntArc.html

http://www.isprs.org/commission1/proceedin...paper/00051.pdf

http://www.nsf.gov/crcns

http://www.sandia.gov/ASC/programs/csse-as.html

Quantum Computing:

http://www.physorg.com/news10079.html

http://www.qubit.org/library/intros/comp/comp.html

http://blogs.zdnet.com/emergingtech/index.php?p=170

http://www.theage.com.au/news/business/dis...8066920268.html

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/quist/index.htm

Google:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google#Google_partnerships

http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial...ch_and_seizure/

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...442E35346809349

http://www.google-watch.org/ Must See

http://blogs.pcworld.com/staffblog/archives/000264.html

http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/conte...09032_mz006.htm

http://news.com.com/Google%20speed%20bump%...447.html?tag=nl

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google#Privacy

http://www.techtree.com/techtree/jsp/artic...9113&cat_id=643

Tracking:

http://www.its.dot.gov/about.htm Vehicle GPS and street cameras

http://dtsn.darpa.mil/ixo/solicitations/cts/index.htm

Combat Zones that See (CTS): What the street cameras are really used for

http://www.biomark.com/

http://www.digitalangelcorp.com/

http://tagged.kaos.gen.nz/

http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/1689/1/1/ NASA’s GPS tracking system

http://www.lonelantern.org/downloads/Alex%...ellent!.wmv

http://www.lonelantern.org/downloads/LLS_P...ews_4-19-05.wmv

http://www.forbes.com/video/?video_url=htt...al&title=Video: Tech Guardians&tab=Technology

http://www.4verichip.com/

http://www.verichipcorp.com/

http://www.epic.org/privacy/rfid/verichip.html

http://www.missingkids.com/missingkids/ser...geId=242#0Child Abduction National Average (keep in mind if the news begins a huge kidnapping media campaign)

http://blog.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseacti...4AA3D6B28904897 RFID Overview

http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/2098/1/1/ RFID Zapper

http://cq.cx/prox.pl Proximity Card Cloning

http://cq.cx/verichip.pl Verichip Cloning

http://www.spychips.com/press-releases/verichip-hacked.html Verichip Hacked

http://www.chicagotribune.com/technology/s...ll=chi-news-hed DoD’s Cyberstorm

http://www.ocregister.com/ocr/2004/08/19/s.../article_208035 Mileage Tax Proposed

http://www.informationweek.com/security/sh...cleID=177103030 New Jersey Grade School Institutes Iris Scanning

http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinno...POE=click-refer Checkout fingerprint scanners

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/12/22/tr...y_mobile_phone/ Cell phone GPS

Behavior Modification:

http://www.iwar.org.uk/iwar/ DOD’s Information Operations Roadmap plus extras

http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=104477&org=NSF Must See

http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?...RS=PN/5,159,703 Non-Detectable Subliminal Messaging System

http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?...D%20TTL/message Subliminal message generator

http://www.subliminalsex.com/Subliminal%20...%20Examples.htm Proof they use subliminal messaging on TV

http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1748 .gov propagandists at CNN

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?.../f133702D73.DTL Remote Control for Humans

http://www.birf.info/education/mind-games/...t-research.html Neuro-stimulation

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/050516_sublimfrm.htm Scientists proved subliminal messages do affect our brains

http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/07/20/1026898931815.html Governments Neuro “Hive Mind” goals

http://www.mackwhite.com/tv.html Television and the Hive Mind

http://www.alexansary.blogspot.com/ Great site

http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/e1950/mkultra/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MKULTRA

http://www.livescience.com/humanbiology/05...nd_readers.html Mirror Neurons

Some collective society quotes:

http://www.wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies...NBIC_report.pdf (.gov document)

"With knowledge no longer encapsulated in individuals, the distinction between individuals and the entirety of humanity would blur," the report says. "Think Vulcan mind-meld. We would perhaps become more of a hive mind - an enormous, single, intelligent entity."

"The collective vision, called The Communicator here, draws together numerous applications and sciences."

"Cognitive scientists can help teams reflect on this division of labor in ways that facilitate collaboration and collective learning (Hutchins 1995)."

"Complex systems studies range from detailed studies of specific systems to studies of the mechanisms by which patterns of collective behaviors arise,"

"Six increasingly interconnected megatrends (Fig. A.16) are perceived as dominating the science and engineering (S&E) scene for the next several decades: (a) information and computing, (B) nanoscale science and engineering, © biology and bio-environmental approaches, (d) medical sciences and enhancement of human physical capabilities, (e) cognitive sciences and enhancement of intellectual abilities, and (f) collective behavior and systems approaches."

"Cognitive sciences and enhancement of intellectual abilities. This area is

concerned with exploring and improving human cognition, behavior, and

intellect. Enhancing communication and group interaction are an integral part of improving collective behavior and productivity."

"Collective behavior and systems approach. This area uses concepts found in architecture, hierarchical systems, chaos theory, and various disciplines to study nature, technology, and society. It may describe a living system, cultural traits, reaction of the society to an unexpected event, or development of global communication, to name a few examples. Recognition of the value of systems approaches increased in the late 1990s."

"But it is important to note that there is a melding of human and S&E development here: human development, from individual medical and intellectual development to collective cultures and globalization, is a key goal."

"Four transforming tools have emerged: nanotechnology for hardware, biotechnology for dealing with living systems, information technology for

communication and control, and cognition-based technologies to enhance human abilities and collective behavior."

"Nanoscience and nanotechnology development are necessary contributing

components in the converging advancements in S&E, including those

originating in the digital revolution, modern biology, human medical and

cognitive sciences, and collective behavior theory."

"Efforts must center on individual and collective human advancement, in terms of an enlightened conception of human benefit that embraces change while preserving fundamental values."

"Table 1. Main improvement areas relative to an individual: External, collective Enhanced group interaction and creativity Unifying science education and learning"

"Figure 2. Vision of the world as a distributed, interconnected brain with various architectural levels that can empower individuals with access to collective knowledge while safeguarding privacy."

"A networked society of billions of human beings could be as complex compared to an individual human being as a human being is to a single nerve cell. From local groups of linked enhanced individuals to a global collective intelligence, key new capabilities would arise from relationships created with NBIC technologies."

"Far from unnatural, such a collective social system may be compared to a larger form of a biological organism. Biological organisms themselves make use of many structures such as bones and circulatory system. The networked society enabled through NBIC convergence could explore new pathways in societal structures, in an increasingly complex system (Bar-Yam 1997)."

"Improving our ability to collectively improve ourselves (see also Spohrer 2002) Generations Several Key Advancements (human kind, tools and technology, communication)

-m Cell, body and brain development

- 100,000 Old Stone Age (Paleolithic), Homo Erectus, speech

-10,000 Homo Sapiens, making tools

-500 Mesolithic, creating art

-400 Neolithic, agricultural products, writing, libraries

-40 Universities

-24 Printing

-16 Renaissance in S&T, accurate clocks

-10 Industrial revolution

-5 Telephone

-4 Radio

-3 TV

-2 Computers

-1 Microbiology, Internet

0 Reaching at the building blocks of matter (nanoscience)

Biotechnology products

Global connection via Internet; GPS/sensors for navigation

Unifying science and converging technologies from the nanoscale

Nanotechnology products

Improving human performance advancements

Global education and information infrastructure

1 Converging technology products for improving human physical and

mental performance (new products and services, brain connectivity,

sensory abilities, etc.)

Societal and business reorganization

n Evolution transcending human cell, body, and brain?"

"Converging technologies are at the confluence of key disciplines and areas of application, and the role of government is important because no other participant can cover the breadth and level of required collective effort. Without special efforts for coordination and integration, the path of science might not lead to the fundamental unification envisioned here."

In the next century (or in about five more generations), breakthroughs in

nanotechnology (blurring the boundaries between natural and human-made molecular systems), information sciences (leading to more autonomous, intelligent machines), biosciences or life sciences (extending human life with genomics and proteomics), cognitive and neural sciences (creating artificial neural nets and decoding the human cognome), and social sciences (understanding memes and harnessing collective IQ) are poised to further pick up the pace of technological progress and perhaps change our species again in as profound a way as the first spoken language learning did some one hundred thousand generations ago."

"Social science advances (obtained from studies of real systems as well as

simulations of complex adaptive systems composed of many interacting

individuals) will provide fresh insights into the collective IQ of humans, as

well as interspecies collective IQ and the spread of memes. A meme, which is a term coined by the author and zoologist Richard Dawkins, is a habit, a

technique, a twist of feeling, a sense of things, which easily flips from one

brain to another."

"Bees (220 million years ago): New species and agent; social insect with

memes, collective IQ"

I’ll have a couple more topics later…

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http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/bica/index.htm

Biologically-Inspired Cognitive Architectures (BICA)

Supplemental

Solicitations

Project Descriptions

Mission:

The goal of the BICA program is to develop integrated psychologically-based and neurobiology-based cognitive architectures that can simulate human cognition in a variety of situations. In Phase I of the program, performers will develop theories of cognition, map cognitive functions to neurological structures, and design psychologically-based and neurobiologically-based cognitive architectures. In a subsequent phase of the program, performers will implement and evaluate computational models of the architectures designed in Phase I. In Phase I, a Cognitive Decathlon (i.e., tests of major cognitive functions) that will be used to evaluate the computational models implemented in Phase II will also be developed.

Vision:

The BICA program intends to develop artificial systems that can respond to a variety of situations by simulating human cognition that will enable it to learn from experience, reflect on current strategies and adjust them if necessary, and mentally simulate alternate plans and decisions. As the use of autonomous, unmanned, and intelligent systems in the military increases, the need for systems that can understand and respond to new and unique situations is growing dramatically. By modeling the flexibility and richness of human cognition, BICA will provide the first steps towards highly capable autonomous systems that could help the warfighter in support functions that are both manpower-intensive and dangerous.

Background:

The traditional approach to artificial intelligence has provided many achievements but has fallen short of the grand vision of integrated, versatile, intelligent systems. Advances in cognitive psychology and neuroscience may offer potentially revolutionary enhancements to the development of such systems. Intensive research in neuroscience, enabled by advances in experimental techniques and instrumentation, has led to substantial progress in our understanding of the brain's physiological mechanisms. At the same time, cognitive psychologists have developed increasingly robust computational architectures of human cognition. The BICA program seeks to bring together these disciplines, which have historically operated apart from one another, to develop integrated psychologically-based and neurobiologically-based cognitive architectures that can respond to a range of military situations.

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/acip/index.htm

Architectures for Cognitive Information Processing (ACIP)

user posted image

Supplemental

Solicitation

Technical Program

Challenges

Goals

ACIP Phase I

Approach

Mission:

ACIP will develop, implement, and demonstrate computational architectures that will:

enable cognitive processing capabilities;

provide an efficient embedded, real-time, dynamic, data-intensive cognitive processing infrastructure; and

realize embedded, real-time cognitive implementations and applications that enable an overall goal of "systems that know what they are doing."

Vision:

ACIP will enable cognitive capabilities in embedded, real-time, dynamic, data-intensive, embedded missions and scenarios by providing an underlying processing infrastructure optimized to perform cognitive processing. ACIP will address the deficiencies and limitations currently preventing the deployment of efficient cognitive processing on the battlefield by developing a new generation of computing architectures (both hardware and software) that will enable revolutionary advances in cognitive information processing for embedded, real-time DoD applications. ACIP will incorporate biological, cognitive algorithm, and DoD mission challenge clues as inputs to establish the concepts of the effort. ACIP will address specific topic areas such as cognitive architectures, alternate representations, composable runtime software, active processing and memory retrieval hardware, and living frameworks to create efficient and unique cognitive information processing solutions. ACIP will create computing system capabilities that adapt to emerging threats and provide the warfighter with a new dimension of responsiveness. ACIP Phase I will investigate and establish innovative cognitive architectural concepts, approaches, and technology roadmap within the context of established DoD relevant applications. ACIP Phase II will develop and implement cognitive processing architectures, initially researched in ACIP Phase I. In Phase III ACIP will demonstrate and transition cognitive architectures and approaches within selected DoD applications and with DoD users. These solutions will be influenced and incorporate concurrent IPTO initiatives in the areas of functional demonstrations and algorithm developments and MTO initiatives addressing physical interconnect and packaging advances.

user posted image

Background:

Military forces today and increasingly for the future must be able to quickly react and adapt to complex and dynamic missions and scenarios. The complexity of the battlefield and the collage of information sources that must be brought to bear commonly overwhelm battlefield systems and the ability of the warfighter to assimilate and comprehend important information. Embedded, real-time "cognitive" processing for both the warfighter and associated automated systems will be critical to success in this complex environment (i.e., algorithms that do logical probabilistic reasoning over large knowledge bases, and also use learning techniques to improve over time). Current intelligent processing implementations depend on the use of existing COTS computing architectures that were developed and are best suited for numeric processing applications. In Addition, today's knowledge representations, abstraction (processing objects), architectures, and implementations are ad hoc, awkward and inefficient. To realize the impact and promise of cognitive information processing approaches, computing architectures and development frameworks attuned to cognitive processing fundamentals need to be established that will implement uniquely cognitive structures efficiently. ACIP will develop, implement, and demonstrate the unique cognitive architectural infrastructures necessary for efficient cognitive processing and realizing truly cognitive capabilities.

"The goal of the ACIP program is to develop a new generation of computing architectures (both hardware and software) that will enable revolutionary advances in cognitive information processing algorithms and systems for real-time DoD applications."

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http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/real/index.htm

Real-World Reasoning (REAL)

user posted image

Mission:

The objective of the REAL-WORLD REASONING (REAL) program is to explore and develop foundations, technology, and tools to enable effective, practical automated reasoning of the scale and complexity required for computers to perform complex tasks in the real world requiring intelligence. Effective, "real-world" machine reasoning requires inference in environments that are far more complex in scale and scope than those tackled by current machine reasoning methods. Enduring real-world systems need to deal with vast amounts of knowledge and information, often concerning dynamic and intentional phenomena. In addition, beliefs about the environment are often uncertain and involve plausible but not provable assumptions. The REAL program seeks innovative research methods that can make fundamental and breakthrough advances in real-world reasoning to deal with these and related problems.

Vision:

The program intends to:

1. Develop and demonstrate innovative techniques that push the envelope of performance of reasoning engines, in terms of the scale of the problems that can be dealt with, and the speed and correctness of reasoning.

2. Explore, develop, and demonstrate novel methods that extend the breadth of reasoning to deal with

a. Uncertain and dynamic environments where the knowledge base is characterized by uncertain and temporally changing information; and,

b. Strategic environments characterized by goals and intentions of many interacting agents and actors, in both cooperative and non-cooperative contexts.

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/srs/index.htm

Self-Regenerative Systems (SRS)

Mission:

The goal of the SRS program is to develop technology for building military computing systems that provide critical functionality at all times, in spite of damage caused by unintentional errors or attacks. All current systems suffer eventual failure due to the accumulated effects of errors or attacks. The SRS program aims to develop technologies enabling military systems to learn, regenerate themselves, and automatically improve their ability to deliver critical services. If successful, self-regenerative systems will show a positive trend in reliability, actually exceeding initial operating capability and approaching a theoretical optimal performance level over long time intervals.

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http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/srs/programabstract.htm

Self-Regenerative Systems (SRS)

user posted image

Mission:

The goal of the SRS program is to develop technology for building military computing systems that provide critical functionality at all times, in spite of damage caused by unintentional errors or attacks. All current systems suffer eventual failure due to the accumulated effects of errors or attacks. The SRS program aims to develop technologies enabling military systems to learn, regenerate themselves, and automatically improve their ability to deliver critical services. If successful, self-regenerative systems will show a positive trend in reliability, actually exceeding initial operating capability and approaching a theoretical optimal performance level over long time intervals.

user posted image

Technical Program

Goals

Program Plan

Program Abstract

Mission:

Provide a focused research and development program, creating new generations of high end programming environments, software tools, architectures, and hardware components in order to realize a new vision of high end computing, high productivity computing systems (HPCS). Address the issues of low efficiency, scalability, software tools and environments, and growing physical constraints.

Fill the high end computing gap between today's late 80's based technology High Performance Computing (HPCs) and the promise of quantum computing.

Provide economically viable high productivity computing systems for the national security and industrial user communities with the following design attributes in the latter part of this decade:

Performance: Improve the computational efficiency and performance of critical national security applications.

Programmability: Reduce cost and time of developing HPCS application solutions.

Portability: Insulate research and operational HPCS application software from system specifics.

Robustness: Deliver improved reliability to HPCS users and reduce risk of malicious activities.

Background:

High performance computing is at a critical juncture. Over the past three decades, this important technology area has provided crucial superior computational capability for many important national security applications. Government research, including substantial DoD investments, has enabled major advances in computing, contributing to the U.S. dominance of the world computer market. Unfortunately, current trends in commercial high performance computing, future complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology challenges, and emerging threats are creating technology gaps that threaten continued U.S. superiority in important national security applications.

As reported in recent DoD studies, there is a national security requirement for high productivity computing systems. Without government R&D and participation, high-end computing will be available only through commodity manufacturers primarily focused on mass-market consumer and business needs. This solution would be ineffective for important national security applications.

The HPCS program will significantly contribute to DoD and industry information superiority in the following critical applications areas: operational weather and ocean forecasting; planning exercises related to analysis of the dispersion of airborne contaminants; cryptanalysis; military platform analysis; survivability/stealth design; intelligence/surveillance/reconnaissance systems; virtual manufacturing/failure analysis of large aircraft, ships, and structures; and emerging biotechnology.

http://www.darpa.mil/ipto/programs/hpcs/index.htm

High Productivity Computing Systems (HPCS)

user posted image

Performance (Real not Peak): Improve critical national security applications by a factor of 10X to 40X

Programmability: Reduce cost and time of developing HPCS application solutions

Portability (Transparency): Insulate research and operational application software from system specifics

Robustness (Reliability): Develop techniques to protect against outside attacks, hardware faults, & programming errors

Invigorate academia interest and industry investment/products in HPCS

http://i24.photobucket.com/albums/c49/Igno...RPA/genesis.jpg

http://i24.photobucket.com/albums/c49/Igno...ARPA/Slide4.gif

http://i24.photobucket.com/albums/c49/Igno...ARPA/Slide3.gif

http://i24.photobucket.com/albums/c49/IgnoranceIsntbliss/The%20Beast/DARPA/Slide2.gif

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hmmm... very strange... tried to click on the original links listed and all seem to be dead links...very strange.

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