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swj20

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nmsa

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Researchers at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee are conducting a multi-year project through a contract with the Technology Transfer Department at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

An LED array held on the outside of a patient's cheek where it shines for just over a minute each day, promotes wound healing to 200%, and prevents mouth sores caused by radiation and chemotherapy.

Near infra-red light-emitting diodes have been used to grow plants on NASA's Space Shuttle. They can also penetrate the human body up to 9 inches. Skin, bone, and muscle cells respond to different wave lengths.

post-52-1071680201.jpg

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Got to do it...

The twin robotic Rovers, and their missions, Spirit and Opportunity, publicy recieved their names last June. Sean O'Keefe, NASA's CAO, and 9-year-old Sofi Collis, who wrote the winning essay in a naming contest, unveiled the names at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. "Now, thanks to Sofi Collis, our third grade explorer-to-be from Scottsdale, Ariz., we have names for the rovers that are extremely worthy of the bold mission they are about to undertake," O'Keefe said.

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/rover/rover-naming.jpg

Sofi read her essay: "I used to live in an orphanage. It was dark and cold and lonely. At night, I looked up at the sparkly sky and felt better. I dreamed I could fly there. In America, I can make all my dreams come true. Thank you for the 'Spirit' and the 'Opportunity.'"

Hers was selected from nearly 10,000 entries in the contest sponsored by NASA and the Lego Co.

Collis was born in Siberia. At age two, she was adopted by Laurie Collis and brought to the United States. "She has in her heritage and upbringing the soul of two great spacefaring countries," O'Keefe said. "One of NASA's goals is to inspire the next generation of explorers. Sofi is a wonderful example of how that next generation also inspires us."

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Kepler wrote in his Harmonice Munde (1619) that he wishes "to erect the magnificent edifice of the harmonic system of the musical scale . . . as God, the Creator Himself, has expressed it in harmonizing the heavenly motions."

And later, "I grant you that no sounds are given forth, but I affirm . . . that the movements of the planets are modulated according to harmonic proportions."

http://www.deutschegrammophon.com/play.htm...aperichole-S.rm

http://www.deutschegrammophon.com/play.htm...nmilitaire-S.rm

http://www.deutschegrammophon.com/play.htm...de-session-S.rm

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On lower left, there is a geo-locator, representating the location of Earth, at the axis point of 14 pulsars.

http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/ima...er.jpg_2big.gif

Flash Video, icons for Voyager and Golden Record. Scroll down, to go past Intro. Voyager's icon links to a brief overview.

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/flash/voyager_reco...dex_voyager.htm

http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/kscpao/videos/...110703_vger.ram

High Resolution, Large Format Heliograph.

R-Click; Save Target As...; Save As Type: All Files; Save; Next Window: Open

http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/spacesci/pic.../heliopause.mov

Voyager 1 has seen striking signs of the region deep in space where a giant shock wave forms, as the wind from the sun abruptly slows and presses outward against the interstellar wind.

Expanded image, and up above, even another bowshock.

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/2002/05...0_wallpaper.jpg

Now, to understand where this is, go to the Constellation Orion, and its great Orion Nebula. Near its central region, the star LL Orionis.

R-Click, Save Target As...

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/2002/05...w_quicktime.mov

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/2002/05...lls/3/image.jpg

Re: Golden Record, each portrays the diversity of life and culture on Earth. This includes music by Bach, Beethoven, Louis Armstrong and Navajo Indians.

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goodness swj20! I had no idea you had such a wealth of knowledge in this subject. had I not checked this thread, I would have never noticed its updates! Seeing your name as the last poster everyday, I hadnt realized such.

Moe salutes your research and thanks you for sharing it! thumbsup.gif

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http://science.msfc.nasa.gov/ssl/pad/solar...s/sun_crane.jpg

The Sun guides the cycle of life. It has a cycle, as well, every eleven years.

As it begins, the acoustic pressure waves and gravity waves, and magnetic lines of force

are in harmonic alignment with the poles, north to south. As the cycle proceeds,

the inner Radiation Zone, and outer Convection Zone, rotate independently.

Along the equator, and beneath the surface, the embedded force lines are distorted,

elongated, like pulling and plucking the strings of a harp; tensions,

and reverberations release energy, as sun spots, coronal heating, flares and loops.

These physics of fusion may one day help provide electrical energy for our needs.

post-52-1073138422.jpg

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Fascinating read swj20, I never knew that about the sun (best thing is...I could understand most of it) blush.gifwink2.gif

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"The quality of mercy is not strain'd,

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven

Upon the place beneath." W. S.

Edited by swj20

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nm

post-52-1076260048.jpg

Edited by swj20

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Inside the center the of the nebula, is a region called the Trapezium. Small telescopes reveal 4 bright stars. In fact, they are hot stars that put out strong UV energy. Near them, are small, exposed protostars, some of which are too exposed. Others are safely inside larger clouds.

Hubble Telescope gave remarkable inside views of the Trapezium,

and it helps show how stars, and planets form, and the power of UV radiation.

The Trapezium, in the nebula.

http://www.geocities.com/swj20oohay/Orion3...l?1077156266442

Closer in. Notice the direction of the proplyds (protoplanetary disks), bearing

upwind into the bright central stars. At risk, one is exposed, the small dark disk.

http://www.geocities.com/swj20oohay/Orion4...l?1077158463622

Others could succeed. This infrared image exposes inside the cloud. Still, the next

stage requires for the nursery to disperse into the galaxy, for room to survive.

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/1997/13...s/web_print.jpg

Nice video. 29 MB. R-Click, Save As for best large format.

http://vis.sdsc.edu/research/images/orion/hayden.mpg

HST video on the same subject, only 5 MB.

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/2001/13...ts/low_mpeg.mpg

post-52-1077153462.jpg

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Background

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is by far the dominant background

energy. The CMB corresponds to an energy density of about 2 billion photons per atom in the Universe today. The next biggest background (two orders of magnitude down in energy contribution) is in the far-IR part of the spectrum, and comes from distant, dusty, star-forming galaxies. A little below that is the near-IR/optical background, coming from the sum of the emission of all the stars in all the galaxies we can observe (as in H-alpha). Much lower are the X-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds, which come from black hole centers of galaxies.

The CMB has spectral shape like a good blackbody.

The fact that the CMB is such a good blackbody is one of the pillars of the

Big Bang model, adding credence to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.

The CMB needs to have originated from something in superb thermal equilibrium. The only known source is the entire Universe, during an earlier epoch when it was very much hotter and denser, and has been cooling and expanding since.

It is the classic blackbody.

post-52-1077346311.jpg

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Overview.

There appears to have been a Big Bang era, which initiated the expansion

of the universe. This is supported, by many, because of the existance of the

background energy, called the Cosmic Microwave Background. That radiation is scattered photons that escaped after an opaque era. That era began when neutral atoms formed (called recombination, the first joining of electrons and protons; somewhat of a misnomer).

After recombination, there was a boundary to light; atoms were absorbing or blocking photons. It lasted until things cooled enough for the first breakout

of light, nearly 300,000 years after the BB. Slowly, there began an era

of reionization, and the universe became more transparent. New stars

and quasars released enough energy to clear the fog of atoms in gas,

Energized atoms, stripped of electrons, become ions, and allow light to pass, without being absorbed. Astronomers are able to detect across time

and space, from the footprints of light, back to the opaque era.

If you read what I mentioned on that, or have heard of it, you know that prior to the existance of matter, there were four seperate forces- strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravity. These gave rise to fields, then a hot soup of quarks, which then cooled. Ions eventually formed, at first helium, the most stable, then hydrogen. Further cooling led to neutral atoms, which allowed some photons to escape the arena. These are present, today, as microwaves.

This was the beginning of a new era, around 300,000 years after the BB.

Light was then free to travel. This energy has since cooled and stretched (redshifted) to become cold microwaves, just a little above absolute zero.

It is called the Cosmic Microwave Background.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ContentMedia/990053_2b.jpg

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ContentMedia/990053b.jpg

NASA had two missions to study it, COBE and WMAP. COBE discovered not isotropic energy signatures (smooth, homogeneous distribution), but anisotropy. WMAP was sent up to look for the anisotropy.

WMAP is the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

The microwave background was first noticed in the mid 1960s, by Bell Labs.

Then the COBE mission was launched in 1989, and WMAP in 2001.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ContentMedia/Micr...avesGuide_b.jpg

The smooth, yet mixed, distribution of the CMB (cosmic microwave background) is seen clearer, in each study. The blue areas represents the coolest areas of microwaves.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_ig/030644/030644_72.jpg

5 frequency maps were taken, to eliminate contamination MW energy from

Milky Way. They are, L to R, 23GHZ K-band frequency, 33GHZ Ka-band,

41GHZ Q-band, 61GHZ V-band, and 95GHZ W-band.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_ig/030665/030665m.jpg

With Milky Way microwave energy subtracted, revealing 380,000 years after BB.

http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_ig/020598/02059...598_ilc_640.jpg

Another mission will launch in 2007, by the ESA, called The Planck Observer.

It will get a finer resolution, to enhance the previous studies.

http://www.rssd.esa.int/SA/PLANCK/images/p...Planck_blue.jpg

Pre-WMAP mission file from ESA. No mention of WMAP.

http://www.rssd.esa.int/SA/PLANCK/images/p...ures/planck.pdf

Planck Probe will complement other studies. One issue may be raised, though.

Will finer detail open the door for a new view on the shape of the universe?

The finite, round-type-universe theorists still may not be ruled out.

Some have exotic ideas about a geometry besides the flat-type-universe theory.

Just like the sun has harmonic acoustics, which are measurable, so did

the early universe. Those acoustic waves are mentioned in this next abstract. Some feel the discovery of very large waves, not seen by WMAP,

could imply a finite type, dodecahedral shape to the cosmos (twelve sided).

Planck Probe may tell us something about that.

http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/031...310/0310253.pdf

Temperature fluxes in the earliest light, show the beginning of clumping, which

was gravity pulling matter together, condensing the first stars 200 million years later, then more stars, and finally, galaxies.

post-52-1077334472.jpg

Edited by swj20

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While WMAP captured a picture 380,000 years after the BB, another has seen

further, to an earlier time.

The Cosmic Background Imager, from Cal Tech, was sent to an isolated area, to conduct its survey of the sky.

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pict...hajnantor1.html

It opens at evening, after temperatures drop.

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pict...-frontview.html

But, one day, one of the volcanoes erupted. Not to worry. Its all in the job

of an astronomer.

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pict...res/lascar.html

Image of the Universe at 300,000 years old. The CBI has imaged three patches of sky each about 2 degrees square (four times the diameter of the Moon); this shows one patch. The colors represent the intensity of the radiation, with red indicating cool spots and white hot spots. The flux in intensity is only about 100 microK (100 millionth of one degree Kelvin, 100 times sharper than WMAP). Absolute zero is 2.73 K.

This image, with a resolution of 7 minutes of arc (the moon is ~30), is the most sensitive yet made of the surface of last scattering.

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pres...s/cbi-image.pdf

http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~tjp/CBI/pres...bi-image-02.pdf

The fluctuations in intensity of the cosmic microwave background are accoustical, and are from sound waves in the early universe, created as the hot plasma oscillated under the force of gravity of dark matter.

http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/02/images/c...-tut-lowres.jpg

post-52-1077352352.jpg

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nm

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Oil (plateau, 2050), uranium (2050), the lasting miracle of fast-breeder reactors, the Large (2005) and The Very Large Hadron Colliders (2020), the danger of hydrogen release (ozone), the promise of gas rich hydrates (Canada), magnegas technology, limits in fusion technology.

Edited by swj20

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nm

post-52-1077487324.jpg

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Dark Energy Brought Us Where We Are Today

post-52-1077783339.jpg

Edited by swj20

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