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Quantum physics and Consciousness

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zorba9987654

Quantum physics and Consciousness. Are they connected? The microtubule connection.

Research into the brain-body-mind problem is ongoing and one way of attempting to understand it is to try and describe consciousness in terms of material particles and fields interacting between inputs, internal states, and outputs without any intrinsic meaning. Terms such as “feeling”, “intention”, “knowing” and “choice” are thus not viewed as primary causal factors of consciousness, but a byproduct of these blind interactions. If this turns out to be true, the Reductionism and Agency thread provides a place for discussion for the validity of that “truth”.

Quantum physics has not been at the forefront to attempt to describe consciousness and the neurocomputational model of laterally connected input layers of the brain’s neurocomputational architecture are viewed as the most credible explanation for consciousness. One problem that quantum mechanics faces is the effect of quantum decoherence (The Role of Decoherence in Quantum Mechanics) and failures to measure it. Essentially, quantum states are believed to be too sensitive and fragile to disruption by thermal energy to affect the macroscopic nature of proteins and other macromolecular structures.

The Penrose-Hameroff orchestrated objective reduction (orch. OR) model provides a basis to connect consciousness with quantum mechanics. Microtubules are integral in this theory.

Connecting quantum mechanics, aromatic ring pi-bonds, protein formation, microtubules and consciousness.

The “quantum physics” and “aromatic ring pi bond” connection.

An aromatic (aromaticity) compound is composed of a conjugated planar ring system with delocalized pi electron clouds. Benzene is an example of an aromatic compound (Figure 1). In benzene (and other aromatic compounds) the double bonds are shorter than the single bonds, causing the carbon atoms to be pulled and pushed between two states and thus vibrate between two states (Figure 2). The pi electrons are also delocalized above and below the carbon ring (Figure 1). Aromatic compounds are thus described to be resonating and are best described quantum mechanically.

The “aromatic ring pi bond” and “protein formation” connection.

4 amino acids contain aromatic rings: tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and histidine (Figure 3). Histidine, however has 6 delocalized electrons but not a benzene ring and is hydrophilic (more polar).

When peptide chains fold to form proteins, the structure is stabilized and dynamically regulated in the intracellular aqueous phase. Polar side groups face outwardly and react with the polar aqueous milieu, while non-polar regions face inwardly (Protein folding). Aromatic amino acids are more non-polar and thus coalesce more readily in the centre of a protein. When aromatic amino acids coalesce it allows London force van der Waals interactions between the non-polar electron clouds of the aromatic rings, causing quantum resonation of the coalesced non-polar aromatic rings (Figure 4).

The “protein formation” and “microtubule” connection.

Microtubules are long, hollow, cylindrical, filamentous, tube-shaped protein polymers consisting of alpha and beta tubulin dimers and form part of the cytoskeleton (Figure 5, Figure 6, Figure 7). Microtubules play important roles in cell signaling, cell division and mitosis, vesicle and mitochondrial transport and play crucial roles in the development and maintenance of cells and cell shape. Microtubules are highly dynamic cytoskeletal fibres and are capable of two types of dynamics:

1) Treadmilling and

2) Dynamic instability

Microtubules polymerize (rescue/elongate) at the positive (+) end and depolymerize (catastrophe/shorten) at the negative (-) end. During treadmilling, polymerization and depolymerization occur at equal rates and thus the microtubules do not change in length but changes position 4-dimensionally.

During dynamic instability, either the (+) end polymerizes quicker than the (-) end can depolymerize resulting in total elongation of the microtubule, or the (-) end depolmerizes quicker than the (+) end can polymerize resulting in total shortening of the microtubule. In the Inner Life of the Cell video this behavior can be witnessed at time approx 1.07-1.11min (rescue) and 1.11-1-15 (catastrophe).

Figure 8 shows the structure of the alpha- and beta-tubulin dimers and the prevalence of aromatic amino acids (1sa0.pdb). At a higher resolution (Figure 9) it is clear that the aromatic amino acids are close enough to each other (< 2nM) to allow for London van der Waals (Figure 10) interactions. When tubulins polymerize during dynamic instability (rescue) they form tube-like structures (Figure 7). Quantum level resonance as a result of quantum level dipole oscillations (London van der Waals forces) within hydrophobic pockets result in functional protein vibrations which depend on quantum effects (Figure 11). The quantum effect on a single tubulin protein conformation is superposed and exists in both states simultaneously and acts as a qubit (as in quantum computer). Thus, the elegant formation of microtubules (Figure 7 and Figure 12) can in theory constitute a quantum computer (more detail).

The “microtubule” and “consciousness” connection.

Microtubules extend throughout dendrites and axons (neural cells) and play crucial roles in controlling synaptic strengths responsible for learning and cognitive functions through mechanical signaling, communication as well as cytoskeletal scaffolding (cell movement).

In a nutshell, the Penrose-Hameroff orch OR model proposes that quantum effects are relayed through pi-bonds in hydrophobic pockets within microtubules to the macroscopic structure of the brain, resulting in consciousness. Microtubules are thus viewed as protein quantum computers relaying the information locked in Planck scale. Fascinating!

Off course the detail of this model is much more in depth and the following documents and web pages illustrates it beautifully. Enjoy!!!

1) Quantum consciousness

2) The Brain Is Both Neurocomputer and Quantum Computer

3) That's life! The geometry of pi electron resonance clouds.

4) Quantum computation in brain microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" model of consciousness

5) Microtubules - Nature's Quantum Computers?

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Sardukar

I think my brain just exploded. But i seriously doubt current science can explain conciousness directly.

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