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SlimJim22

Mystery of the origins of the Polynesians

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SlimJim22

I've been intrigued by the Lapita people for a while and found this really cool link exploring their connections to other groups. They have really cool artwork and tattoos and had some megalithic architecture. Perhaps most intriguing is their geentic codes and the examples of 'long skulls'. Is this a genetic trait or the result of head binding.

The link is quite long but well worth a look.

http://www.users.on.net/~mkfenn/page6.htm

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Piney

As soon as it mentioned "red haired caucasians" in Nevada and other locations the article went into the realm of "round file".

Most Amerinds are born with red hair that darkens to black, then bleaches out to red with decomposition.

The phallic pestle is interesting though. We find those from the Archaic to the Woodland Period all over the place in the Delaware Valley.

I'm still reading though.

Lapiche

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Piney

OK. "Caucasians and Atlantis, blond hair and common origins with Europeans" :blink: I'm done. This is the only place these people will get published..........time for Mr. Christian and his bro. :)

Lapiche

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The_Spartan

I did a search on google for Research into Genetic origins of the Melanesians and Polynesians ..and found these...

SLOW BOAT....SLOW BOAT...SLOW BOAT.....hell these people were lazy... :rolleyes:

Melanesian origin of Polynesian Y chromosomes

Background: Two competing hypotheses for the origins of Polynesians are the

‘express-train’ model, which supposes a recent and rapid expansion of

Polynesian ancestors from Asia/Taiwan via coastal and island Melanesia, and

the ‘entangled-bank’ model, which supposes a long history of cultural and

genetic interactions among Southeast Asians, Melanesians and Polynesians.

Most genetic data, especially analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation,

support the express-train model, as does linguistic and archaeological

evidence. Here, we used Y-chromosome polymorphisms to investigate the

origins of Polynesians.

Results: We analysed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven

short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in 28 Cook Islanders from

Polynesia and 583 males from 17 Melanesian, Asian and Australian populations.

We found that all Polynesians belong to just three Y-chromosome haplotypes, as

defined by unique event polymorphisms. The major Y haplotype in Polynesians

(82% frequency) was restricted to Melanesia and eastern Indonesia and most

probably arose in Melanesia. Coalescence analysis of associated Y-STR

haplotypes showed evidence of a population expansion in Polynesians,

beginning about 2,200 years ago. The other two Polynesian Y haplotypes were

widespread in Asia but were also found in Melanesia.

Conclusions: All Polynesian Y chromosomes can be traced back to Melanesia,

although some of these Y-chromosome types originated in Asia. Together with

other genetic and cultural evidence, we propose a new model of Polynesian

origins that we call the ‘slow-boat’ model: Polynesian ancestors did originate

from Asia/Taiwan but did not move rapidly through Melanesia; rather, they

interacted with and mixed extensively with Melanesians, leaving behind their

genes and incorporating many Melanesian genes before colonising the Pacific.

Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific

The human settlement of the Pacific Islands represents one of the most recent major migration events of mankind.

Polynesians originated in Asia according to linguistic evidence or in Melanesia according to archaeological evidence.

To shed light on the genetic origins of Polynesians, we investigated over 400 Polynesians from 8 island groups, in comparison

with over 900 individuals from potential parental populations of Melanesia, Southeast and East Asia, and Australia,

by means of Y chromosome (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Overall, we classified 94.1% of Polynesian

Y chromosomes and 99.8% of Polynesian mtDNAs as of either Melanesian (NRY-DNA: 65.8%, mtDNA: 6%) or

Asian (NRY-DNA: 28.3%, mtDNA: 93.8%) origin, suggesting a dual genetic origin of Polynesians in agreement with the

‘‘Slow Boat’’ hypothesis. Our data suggest a pronounced admixture bias in Polynesians toward more Melanesian men than

women, perhaps as a result of matrilocal residence in the ancestral Polynesian society. Although dating methods are consistent

with somewhat similar entries of NRY/mtDNA haplogroups into Polynesia, haplotype sharing suggests an earlier

appearance of Melanesian haplogroups than those from Asia. Surprisingly, we identified gradients in the frequency distribution

of some NRY/mtDNA haplogroups across Polynesia and a gradual west-to-east decrease of overall NRY/mtDNA

diversity, not only providing evidence for a west-to-east direction of Polynesian settlements but also suggesting that Pacific

voyaging was regular rather than haphazard. We also demonstrate that Fiji played a pivotal role in the history of Polynesia:

humans probably first migrated to Fiji, and subsequent settlement of Polynesia probably came from Fiji.

Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples

A number of alternative hypotheses seek to explain the origins of the three groups of Pacific populations—Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians—who speak languages belonging to the Oceanic subfamily of Austronesian languages. To test these various hypotheses at the genetic level, we assayed diversity within the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome, which contains within it a relatively simple record of the human past and represents the most informative haplotypic system in the human genome. High-resolution haplotypes combining binary, microsatellite, and minisatellite markers were generated for 390 Y chromosomes from 17 Austronesian-speaking populations in southeast Asia and the Pacific. Nineteen paternal lineages were defined and a Bayesian analysis of coalescent simulations was performed upon the microsatellite diversity within lineages to provide a temporal aspect to their geographical distribution. The ages and distributions of these lineages provide little support for the dominant archeo-linguistic model of the origins of Oceanic populations that suggests that these peoples represent the Eastern fringe of an agriculturally driven expansion initiated in southeast China and Taiwan. Rather, most Micronesian and Polynesian Y chromosomes appear to originate from different source populations within Melanesia and Eastern Indonesia. The Polynesian outlier, Kapingamarangi, is demonstrated to be an admixed Micronesian/Polynesian population. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a geographical rather than linguistic classification of Oceanic populations best accounts for their extant Y chromosomal diversity.

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Piney

I did a search on google for Research into Genetic origins of the Melanesians and Polynesians ..and found these...

SLOW BOAT....SLOW BOAT...SLOW BOAT.....hell these people were lazy... :rolleyes:

Literally, genetic drift. :lol:

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