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Paul Hai

Giza Pyramid construction

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switchopens

Thank you for this post.

I was unaware any understanding of the Petrie rocker had been established. I'm, however, at a lack to find any real detail about the object. I thought it was much smaller and assumed it was some part of a sun dial that would brake the day into shifts (assuming that it was set to do this during that inundation period).

Also, there looks like there are hieroglyphs on the side reading from right to left...or am I imagining things?

Anyway, Flinders Petrie was an amazing man. I wonder if he ever thought he would become part of the myths and legends himself.

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kmt_sesh

...

Windspire Turbine, produced by Mariah Power is an affordable, smart and very quiet innovative wind turbine. Inspired by a 3000 years old Egyptian windmill design, the Windspire proved to be competitive with modern wind turbines. At only 30 feet tall and 4 feet wide, the Windspire 1.2 kW wind turbine is distinguished by its sleek propeller-free design and ultra quiet operation.

http://2windturbine.blogspot.com/

How did the AE depict a vertical axis windmill?

Bceause from what I understand searching the web, the ancient Egyptians did have windmills, or socalled VAWT in the preferred language used in the USA (=abbreviations).

I can't really think of any sort of windmill used in ancient Egypt. I'm kind of skeptical about that, but do you have any information to flesh it out? I'd be curious to see what some sources say on the issue.

...

And what is this guy doing here, kite-surfing??

pharao.jpg

...

The image is very low-res and it's hard to make out details, which can be very important. I'm not sure if that's Horus standing behind the sail of if it's a pharaoh. Same problem with the figure kneeling at the front. In any case Egyptian depictions sometimes can seem strange to the modern eye and not everything is to the sort of perspective and scale to which we're accustomed, but it's only a boat or skiff on which the occupants are shown oversized. The vessel is typical in that regard. The sails are shown full to suggest rapid movement on the water.

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kmt_sesh

...

Also, there looks like there are hieroglyphs on the side reading from right to left...or am I imagining things?

...

Yes, there are hieroglyphs on the rocker. I hadn't noticed them myself--you have a good eye.

The image is too indistinct for me to see proper details but the cartouche to the right end of the inscription almost certainly says Maatkara. This was the throne name of Hatshepsut, so it makes sense. In Post 6 Paul Hai was talking about Petrie's excavations of Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el Bahri, so this must be the actual rocker Petrie uncovered in the foundation cache. Petrie was known for being particularly clever at finding foundation caches, which are often quite important for the research of a temple. This is only a miniature rocker and ritual in nature. It was never used for actual construction purposes.

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Abramelin

I can't really think of any sort of windmill used in ancient Egypt. I'm kind of skeptical about that, but do you have any information to flesh it out? I'd be curious to see what some sources say on the issue.

The image is very low-res and it's hard to make out details, which can be very important. I'm not sure if that's Horus standing behind the sail of if it's a pharaoh. Same problem with the figure kneeling at the front. In any case Egyptian depictions sometimes can seem strange to the modern eye and not everything is to the sort of perspective and scale to which we're accustomed, but it's only a boat or skiff on which the occupants are shown oversized. The vessel is typical in that regard. The sails are shown full to suggest rapid movement on the water.

I had hoped you could tell me more about those ancient Egyptian vertical axis windmills. All I read about it is from people copying from eachother, the quote I posted.

=

Here's another, more detailed image of that 'kite surfer' :

barque-defaced-c-beck.jpg

Relief in the Court of Offerings depicting the annual Festival of the Beautiful Meeting, during which Hathor's image sailed from Dendera to spend some intimate time with Horus in the sanctuary of the Temple of Edfu before sailing back. The faces were later destroyed by iconoclasts. Photo � Richard Beck.

http://www.sacred-destinations.com/egypt/edfu-photos/slides/barque-defaced-c-beck

(Same image, but huge: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Edfu_temple_relief_by_John_Campana.jpg You can partly see a similar scene with two ships just above it)

++++

EDIT:

This is another line about those windpowered Egyptian contraptions:

Even in Ancient Egypt 3,5 thousands years B.C. wind engines were applied for water lifting and grain grinding.

http://www.superox.ru/en/enchild_wind.htm

But real information is only to be found about much later Persian windmills:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panemone_windmill

=

Wind energy: fundamentals, resource analysis and economics - Sathyajith Mathew

Windpower.jpg

http://books.google.nl/books?id=ICTB1wdFzOoC&pg=PA90&dq=9783540309055&hl=nl&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=3#v=onepage&q=egypt&f=false

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Abramelin

The use of kites/sails to build a pyramid seems more of an indictment on the AE than a compliment.

They adapt a sail to perform, or assist in, the heavy lifting in construction, but see no other application? Why wouldn't they adapt it for military purposes for example?

An indictment??

No other applications? They used sails to..well.. sail. Maybe they used something like sails for vertical axis windmills (although I haven't seen any image from AE of such a thing, yet), maybe they used sails to lift and transport blocks of stone. And what you would call a military application is maybe a kite used to lift up a soldier to watch the distant horizon (like the ancient Chinese are supposed to have done). God knows, maybe they even used sails to pull a cart and thus drive with high speed over the sands:

stevin_modelzeilwagen.png

simon-stevin-zeilwagen.jpg

Other images of such a cart (Dutch):

http://www.scheveningen1813-2013.nl/strandschilders/16001700/pot/zeilwagen.jpg

http://www.decoussemaeker.be/debliedemaker/archief/2008-05/zeilwagen-dumont.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Zeilwagen_van_Simon_Stevin_-_Lithografie_van_het_origineel_door_Joseph_Canneel.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Middelkerke_zeilwagen_1923.jpg

All possible, but did it happen? Aside of sails for sailing a ship, no proof for all the others.

++++

EDIT:

Wrong; apparently - if I have to believe the Wiki page, the AE did have sailing carts:

The earliest known use of land yachts was in Ancient Egypt, where they were apparently built for leisure. The Chinese had "wind-driven carriages" since the 6th century AD, during the Liang Dynasty, and eventually mounted masts and sails on large wheelbarrows.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_sailing

++++

EDIT:

Sailingcart_Egypt.jpg

From:

Science and civilisation in China: Physics and physical technology - Joseph Needham

http://books.google.nl/books?id=SeGyrCfYs2AC&pg=PA279&lpg=PA279&dq=sail+carriage+%22ancient+egypt%22&source=bl&ots=-nfFMsHQGC&sig=Z3DRIf1EXCcRD64_3Z49AeCtpSA&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=KjsUT7vdGsGg-wbjo5zeDw&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=sail%20carriage%20%22ancient%20egypt%22&f=false

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Oniomancer

Is there where we invoke the Henu boat on skis again?

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Abramelin

Is there where we invoke the Henu boat on skis again?

Well, maybe on roller skates and pulled by a kite??

:P

.

Edited by Abramelin

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Abramelin

In comparison to these cultures, kites came rather late to the West. There is some suggestion that a Greek mathematician, Archytas, flew what might have been a kite as early as 400 B.C. It could, conceivably, have been an import of a Chinese invention, but little evidence supports either a claim for invention or importation. There is spatulation that the Cretan legend of Icarus (who flew too close to the sun on wax wings and perished) might have been inspired by stories of men flying aboard kites.

And, although other references to kites are present in both Greek and Egyptian cultures, it is still assumed that the role of kites fell far short of their role in the Orient.

http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ET3M-TKKW/history7.html

I wonder why I cannot find those references.

Here is how Clemmons interpreted ancient Egyptian gods and certain ceremonial attributes to make them fit her theory:

http://everleaf.com/pyramids/egypt.htm

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Golden Duck

An indictment??

No other applications? They used sails to..well.. sail.

Observing a sail on a sailing boat and pondering alternative applications such as using a sail to sail a sailing boat, could hardly be considered creative.

I don't think you tried to understand my comments, but that's understandable, Abe, as I too am trying too dispose of certain duty-free products glass by glass.

In the context of this latest tangent in this thread there is is the suggestion that AE observed sails on sailing boats, had an epiphany and invented kites for the purpose of constructing pyramids.

Now, after the construction of the pyramids, there is no evidence of AE use of kites or sails for alternative applications. So what happened? Why not another epiphany? Imagine them, standing around, scratching whatever, and saying "Wind power is good for sailing boats and lifting limestone, but nothing else."

Maybe they used something like sails for vertical axis windmills (although I haven't seen any image from AE of such a thing, yet), maybe they used sails to lift and transport blocks of stone. And what you would call a military application is maybe a kite used to lift up a soldier to watch the distant horizon (like the ancient Chinese are supposed to have done). God knows, maybe they even used sails to pull a cart and thus drive with high speed over the sands:

These are all entertaining ideas apparently not thought of of by the AE; or are we talking about Chinese pyramids now?

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Abramelin

Observing a sail on a sailing boat and pondering alternative applications such as using a sail to sail a sailing boat, could hardly be considered creative.

I don't think you tried to understand my comments, but that's understandable, Abe, as I too am trying too dispose of certain duty-free products glass by glass.

In the context of this latest tangent in this thread there is is the suggestion that AE observed sails on sailing boats, had an epiphany and invented kites for the purpose of constructing pyramids.

Now, after the construction of the pyramids, there is no evidence of AE use of kites or sails for alternative applications. So what happened? Why not another epiphany? Imagine them, standing around, scratching whatever, and saying "Wind power is good for sailing boats and lifting limestone, but nothing else."

These are all entertaining ideas apparently not thought of of by the AE; or are we talking about Chinese pyramids now?

To start with your last remark: apart from kites being used for lifting and transporting blocks of stone, all the others appear to have been real inventions by the AE: a vertical axis windmill and a sailing cart. But I admit I haven't seen an image of either of those.

=

I don't think it's much of an epiphany when someone realizes that it is the sail pulling a boat with a heavy load along and then imagines the same thing could be used onland. And have you ever put up a tent but forgot to ancher it to the ground, to later discover that the wind got under it and you desparately have to hold on to the ropes to prevent it from flying away? And then, when you hold on to the ropes, you start 'flying' too?

So even though there is no proof of kites being used to lift/pull stones, it appears to be an invention lying just around the corner.

=

I may not have understood your remark, but aside from the intake of alcohol you should not forget that even though I understand most of what's been posted on UM, some English remarks go right past me.

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third_eye

wally wallington called it the *egyptian rocker* if i remember correctly and he demonstrated how it was used, placed in a line up an incline he flung the stones around effortlessly, good for moving modest size stones as it flip over the rockers with a bit of momentum behind it.

Last i say the vid was on you tube, Abe will now demonstrate his awesomeness of link conjuring...

Mr Abe, please proceed ...

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Abramelin

wally wallington called it the *egyptian rocker* if i remember correctly and he demonstrated how it was used, placed in a line up an incline he flung the stones around effortlessly, good for moving modest size stones as it flip over the rockers with a bit of momentum behind it.

Last i say the vid was on you tube, Abe will now demonstrate his awesomeness of link conjuring...

Mr Abe, please proceed ...

Heh, I remember I posted his video days ago in the Hydrogen Balloon thread, but here you have his own site (plus video):

http://www.theforgottentechnology.com/newpage1

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third_eye

Heh, I remember I posted his video days ago in the Hydrogen Balloon thread, but here you have his own site (plus video):

http://www.theforgottentechnology.com/newpage1

Much apologies, i was not aware of the balloon thread, thanks for the links but i mentioned it for the benefit of the others who didn't seem to put much effort to use wally's site for reference, i am quite familiar with him since like ages ago. :tu: thanks all the same

I'm on a pre paid mobile plan, i'm saving the bytes for posting so i'll leave the link hunts to ya, you're the link magus anyway...

Happy new year ya old goat :lol:

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Abramelin

Much apologies, i was not aware of the balloon thread, thanks for the links but i mentioned it for the benefit of the others who didn't seem to put much effort to use wally's site for reference, i am quite familiar with him since like ages ago. :tu: thanks all the same

I'm on a pre paid mobile plan, i'm saving the bytes for posting so i'll leave the link hunts to ya, you're the link magus anyway...

Happy new year ya old goat :lol:

Happy New Year to you too, 3D-I !!

Btw, I have been staring for half an hour at an AE mural depicting people tending something like a GOAT, lol.

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lakeview rud

Wally Wallington's video which shows him lifting a large concrete stone by 'rocking' it pretty much summarizes my idea of an "Eye of Horus" rocker device for lifting stones up the side of the GP. The only difference might be the concept of tying the cradle to the stone and rocking perpendicular to the pyramid face but, in truth, you could do the same thing parallel to it. His idea of moving the stones on pebbles might solve how they were moved once they reached a particular level.

As stated previously, I believe the AE's were intelligent enough and resourceful enough to use whatever technology was available to them. That could mean ramps and sledges up to a certain level (maybe the start of the ascending passage) rope logs or pulleys for the next bits (there was evidence of a wear mark at the top of the ascending passage until the modern Egyptians "corrected" it with repair work). There are lots of questions about the holes along that passage.... An internal ramp could well be a possibility for the upper levels. There was a photo in one of the threads showing some sort of phantom marks along one side at the 7 degree angle that most folks give as the upper limit for ramp inclination. Has anyone projected backwards on those and tried to come up with an entry point? Heck, if the AE's had a formula for concrete I would have expected them to use that as "fill" wherever they needed it (between blocks, not in place of them).

With some of the modern technology we now possess it might be a good idea to take a second look at all 3 of the pyramids on the plateau.

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kmt_sesh

Wally Wallington's video which shows him lifting a large concrete stone by 'rocking' it pretty much summarizes my idea of an "Eye of Horus" rocker device for lifting stones up the side of the GP. The only difference might be the concept of tying the cradle to the stone and rocking perpendicular to the pyramid face but, in truth, you could do the same thing parallel to it. His idea of moving the stones on pebbles might solve how they were moved once they reached a particular level.

As stated previously, I believe the AE's were intelligent enough and resourceful enough to use whatever technology was available to them. That could mean ramps and sledges up to a certain level (maybe the start of the ascending passage) rope logs or pulleys for the next bits (there was evidence of a wear mark at the top of the ascending passage until the modern Egyptians "corrected" it with repair work). There are lots of questions about the holes along that passage.... An internal ramp could well be a possibility for the upper levels. There was a photo in one of the threads showing some sort of phantom marks along one side at the 7 degree angle that most folks give as the upper limit for ramp inclination. Has anyone projected backwards on those and tried to come up with an entry point? Heck, if the AE's had a formula for concrete I would have expected them to use that as "fill" wherever they needed it (between blocks, not in place of them).

With some of the modern technology we now possess it might be a good idea to take a second look at all 3 of the pyramids on the plateau.

There is no such thing as an "Eye of Horus rocker." It's simply called a rocker or cradle. But as has been explained, it's unlikely rockers were used to build pyramids. They would've been more of a hinderance than a help.

Wallington's videos are pretty interesting. I've watched a couple of them and it's impressive what he can do. Were these ideas applied in the Early Bronze Age when the Great Pyramid was constructed? Highly unlikely. He's demonstrated some conceptual means by which a few dozen very large stones can be moved and positioned, but that's considerably different from moving and positioning some two million stones in a very confined environment. And none of his mechanisms are evidenced in the context of Egypt of the mid-third millennium BCE, when the Great Pyramid was built.

Mark Lehner has experimented with a number of different ways to move stones of the size from which the Great Pyramid was built. His team even attempted the end-over-end method, which actually worked but was immediately dismissed as untenable. It would've been unpredictable and dangerous. Rather, the different ways they experimented with stones on wooden sledges all were successful. This included teams of men moving blocks of masonry up inclines approximating the slopes of ramps. Now, this means of moving large stone objects is evidenced in Dynasty 4 Egypt, so there's really no reason, then, to doubt that this was how it was actually done.

As I've said before, however, the precise system of ramps cannot be known. At least not yet. No evidence of a definitive nature has survived. This includes Jean-Pierre Houdin's internal-ramp theory: there's no evidence to support it. In fact, while there's plentiful evidence for standard ramp usage from all periods of pharaonic history, as far as I'm aware no single Egyptian monument has yet revealed any sort of internal ramp.

The Egyptians did not possess a pulley of the sort with which we are familiar. They utilized proto-pulleys, which essentially just allowed them to feed ropes over a pre-shaped form made of wood or stone. This argues in favor of some sort of mechanical means probably used to maneuver stone blocks, but no evidence for such a mechanism has ever been found. The Egyptians did not make or use concrete, either. They certainly made mortar, but this isn't the same thing. The Great Pyramid contains countless tons of mortar, but it certainly doesn't help much to bind stones together. It was used probably to help slide blocks into their final positions, as well as to fill voids and pockets.

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third_eye

~byte save snip~

... The Egyptians did not make or use concrete, either. They certainly made mortar, but this isn't the same thing. The Great Pyramid contains countless tons of mortar, but it certainly doesn't help much to bind stones together. It was used probably to help slide blocks into their final positions, as well as to fill voids and pockets.

Hey sesh_man , have a cigar :tu:

curious to me though how come the idea that maybe most of the larger and heavier lime/sand stones weren't actually moved from anywhere but was just cut out of whatever that is now under the triplemids and was just positioned wherever it is now in the structures ever suggested as a possibility? Or is there some theory put forward along those lines ?

Happy new year ol'chap

Cheerios~

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kmt_sesh

Hey sesh_man , have a cigar :tu:

curious to me though how come the idea that maybe most of the larger and heavier lime/sand stones weren't actually moved from anywhere but was just cut out of whatever that is now under the triplemids and was just positioned wherever it is now in the structures ever suggested as a possibility? Or is there some theory put forward along those lines ?

Happy new year ol'chap

Cheerios~

Thanks, third-eye. I'll enjoy that cigar, but shame on you for encouraging me with such a bad habit!

I'm not sure I entirely understand your question. I think you're talking about the largest blocks of limestone as well as the huge blocks of granite, the latter of which weigh upwards of 50 tons.

The bottommost courses of stone blocks are some of the largest, to hold the massive weight of all of the stone blocks above them. It's obvious that a sizable area of the bottommost mass of stone is in fact part of a limestone massif hewn to shape right there at the bottom. The blocks of masonry surrounding and enclosing it, however, clearly were purposely cut, positioned, and dressed to fit around the massif. The massive slabs of granite were of course cut at Aswan hundreds of miles to the south and floated downstream on barges, because granite is not available anywhere near Giza. Sandstone was not used in the Giza pyramids.

Do you have an ashtray I can borrow?

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third_eye

Thanks, third-eye. I'll enjoy that cigar, but shame on you for encouraging me with such a bad habit!

Oh put away that over starched denims and chill ol'chap, you don't have to light it, just wave it around when you're next putting some star struck fringee on the path to proper reading habits, i hear the ladies are much impressed with a bit of Ol'Victorian mannerisms these days :P

I'm not sure I entirely understand your question.

~snip~

My fault entirely, i really should stop posting like a rooster with tail feathers on fire, i promise again to not again commit such atrocious posts again. I apologise.

Then again, you did addressed my enquiries in tip top fashion, for which i must express my gratitude and commend your patience not to mention seemingly bottomless resources plus knowledge on the topic. I was hopefully hoping for some scholastic or academic references that you might perhaps generously toss at me. :tu:

Do you have an ashtray I can borrow?

Oh i'm sure you have a spare sarcophagus around you can pretend to flick pretended ash from a unlighted cigar

Buy a lighter and i'll buy you an ashtray :D

~cheers ol'chap

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lakeview rud

No fringee here third eye; just open to some possibilities.... As far as real evidence goes there's precious little concrete proof (excuse the obvious reference) of any methods for block movement and placement short of the ramp evidence that kmt-sesh referred to and even that has some limitations. Anyone who believes the 20 year time frame for construction and doesn't believe in alien intervention will have similar doubts about simply "ramps".

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third_eye

No fringee here third eye; just open to some possibilities.... As far as real evidence goes there's precious little concrete proof (excuse the obvious reference) of any methods for block movement and placement short of the ramp evidence that kmt-sesh referred to and even that has some limitations. Anyone who believes the 20 year time frame for construction and doesn't believe in alien intervention will have similar doubts about simply "ramps".

I hate the ramps no ramps argument/discussion, its just stupid on the whole spectrum of debate.

I just don't buy the ~one ramp to move them all~ proposal, otherwise, of course there was ramps, big and small and probably scattered up and down the plateau. Debating about ramps just deflects nothing and everything accomplishing nothing.

I have strong reservations about the twenty year time frame too but then its another blind catch twenty alley as there is no way to know for sure short of digging up the plans of construction or something recorded or documented. Even then the authencity of the 'evidence' is just what it is, a recorded document, reliability would still be a factor untill independent verification from other reliable sources are available.

Seeing that none of any of anything required to satisfactorily address such concerns of *evidence* is going to be available, the search and demand of the *true* solution is obviously a futile exercise of logic.

Generally i still reckon that most everyone is banging on the wrong door because everyone is still trying to solve something by the approach of using *modern* logic, science and intellect to apply the solutions on the patchwork of evidence available.

The AEs were old school, maybe even the *first* of all schools. By their standards the pinnacle of civillised knowledge of their day and time, and not new or cutting edge.

They were old hands, even perhaps the best there was at the time as we know now a lot of structures were being constructed across the *old world* for much longer and deeper into the history of humankind.

Whether there were contact among the different cultures or *technology* shared i can't say but i suspect that it can't be impossible neither is it improbable, we know the early nomadic cultures travelled, migrated and covered much greater distances than previously suspected.

As for the Gizamids, my personal feeling is that the site is much, much older than the structures seen today, what was built when and when the constructions began i suspect that unless we define what is a *timeframe* of completion or what is a *duration* according to current engineering definitions and what can be applied to the historical context of the pyramids, we're just dancing with shadows written in words on books.

Edit : verb entanglement

Edited by third_eye

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Paul Hai

Video uploaded 20 October 2013 .....................

...................................................................................................................................

Demonstrating RACK & PINION MECHANICS - circa 2600 BC with the ancient Egyptian four-lobe pinion-pulley. The four sides of square based Giza Pyramids consist of Stone Racks of steps (comparison - four racks of gear teeth) - wooden pinion-pulley lobes (comparison with gear teethed cogs) engage and step-walk the stone racks when hoisted. All four sides of these Pyramids would be used with as many pulleys in use as required, all working independently and simultaneously, easily building Khufu's Great Pyramid within just twenty years as documented and now proven beyond doubt.

www.haitheory.com

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The_Spartan

Down to the time when Rhampsinitos was king, they told me there was in Egypt nothing but orderly rule, and Egypt prospered greatly; but after him Cheops became king over them and brought them to every kind of evil: for he shut up all the temples, and having first kept them from sacrifices there, he then bade all the Egyptians work for him. So some were appointed to draw stones from the stone-quarries in the Arabian mountains to the Nile, and others he ordered to receive the stones after they had been carried over the river in boats, and to draw them to those which are called the Libyan mountains; and they worked by a hundred thousand men at a time, for each three months continually. Of this oppression there passed ten years while the causeway was made by which they drew the stones, which causeway they built, and it is a work not much less, as it appears to me, than the pyramid; for the length of it is five furlongs and the breadth ten fathoms and the height, where it is highest, eight fathoms, and it is made of stone smoothed and with figures carved upon it. For this they said, the ten years were spent, and for the underground he caused to be made as sepulchral chambers for himself in an island, having conducted thither a channel from the Nile. For the making of the pyramid itself there passed a period of twenty years; and the pyramid is square, each side measuring eight hundred feet, and the height of it is the same. It is built of stone smoothed and fitted together in the most perfect manner, not one of the stones being less than thirty feet in length. This pyramid was made after the manner of steps which some called "rows" and others "bases": and when they had first made it thus, they raised the remaining stones with machines made of short pieces of timber, raising them first from the ground to the first stage of the steps, and when the stone got up to this it was placed upon another machine standing on the first stage, and so from this it was drawn to the second upon another machine; for as many as were the courses of the steps, so many machines there were also, or perhaps they transferred one and the same machine, made so as easily to be carried, to each stage successively, in order that they might take up the stones; for let it be told in both ways, according as it is reported. However that may be the highest parts of it were finished first, and afterwards they proceeded to finish that which came next to them, and lastly they finished the parts of it near the ground and the lowest ranges. On the pyramid it is declared in Egyptian writing how much was spent on radishes and onions and leeks for the workmen, and if I rightly remember that which the interpreter said in reading to me this inscription, a sum of one thousand six hundred talents of silver was spent; and if this is so, how much besides is likely to have been expended upon the iron with which they worked, and upon bread and clothing for the workmen, seeing that they were building the works for the time which has been mentioned and were occupied for no small time besides, as I suppose, in the cutting and bringing of the stones and in working at the excavation under the ground?

From "An Account of Egypt" by herodotus, translated byG. C. Macaulay

He didn’t know Egyptian to converse, inquire with the locals.

To tell the truth - Herodotus is the king of hearsay.

As per Herodotus, pharaoh Rhampsinitos was succeeded by Cheops/Khufu.

In fact Snefru preceded Khufu.

Rhampsinitos is a fictitious king thought up in the mind of Herodotus!!

So, effectively, Herodotus doesn’t know his Egypt first hand. And whatever he has written about the construction methods of the Pyramid is also HEARSAY.

So, there goes!!

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abhijit_b

Progressively Use a Pyramid to Build a Pyramid to the point of Completion.

Use ALL four sides.

:rolleyes:

I always believe in it..It makes much sense to one specific problem to the Pyramid Construction...Lets analyze the problem below:

I assume the the Great Pyramid took 20-22 years to build. This is not a short period, but when Khufu became the king, on what basis would he take a project of that long? Did he know that he would be living for next 20 years? What if he would have died just five years after his reign? Would his successor take up the pain of next 15 years to finish his project? I think it would be very foolish to take up such a project and plan for the same upfront until and unless you know the future.

If you consider the reign for Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure; you can directly relate to their Pyramid Size.

According to the Egyptians, there are evidence that Khufu reigned more than 27 years, Khafre 24-25 years and Menkaure around 18 years. hence the sizes of the Pyramids.

I believe for almost for the complete reign of the King, the pyramid project used to run. Towards, old age of the king they take up the finishing work. If the king dies early, they stop construction and just do the finishing work. So a progressive pyramid construction makes lot of sense.

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Derek Cunningham

Welcome!

It is well known that the pyamid and tombs of this time period do Not have writting in them. It is not till 100 years after the Giza Pyramid complex was built that the first instance of the Pyramid Texts (Book of the Dead) being written on the pyramids interior walls.

Actually there do exists petroglyphs within the Pyramids.....see the links here

http://www.midnightsciencejournal.com/2011/10/10/three-new-secret-hieroglyphs-discovered-in-pyramid-khufu/

http://www.midnightsciencejournal.com/2011/06/08/the-discovery-of-the-giza-pyramid-hieroglyph/

The theory that the Pyramids create a map of the earth is now also confirmed by the latest study of Stonehenge and various seals discovered in the Indus Valley

https://www.createspace.com/4084284

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