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James The Brother of The Lord, or Racist?

Davros of Skaro

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There are a number of verses in the nonpseudographical letters of Paul that historicists point to as evidence of Jesus. They are either interpolations, or they overlook the allegorical meanings.

The one verse that Dr Bart Ehrman (NT scholar and historicist proponent) time and time again points to as evidence for an historical Jesus is Galatians 1:19. This is where Paul meets "James, the brother of the Lord".

The problem is that anyone baptized in Christ is a fictive kin in a spiritual family. Paul does not differentiate wether James is a biological brother, or a baptized brother in Christ. Also when looking through the Pauline Epistles with scrutiny the Christ Jesus of Paul looks to be celestial in that he never had an Earthly ministry? Paul is not a witness, wrote in the 50's CE (earliest Christian writings), and do not confuse the Paul as depicted in the decades later fictional "Book of Acts".

* See the lecture "Book of Acts as Historical Fiction" by Dr Richard Carrier:

*Note I'm using Young's literal translation for clarity.

Romans 8:29

"29 because whom He did foreknow, He also did fore-appoint, conformed to the image of His Son, that he might be first-born among many brethren;"

Paul's celestial Jesus is preexisting to a large family to come. Keep in mind that several keyword descriptions of Jesus that Paul uses happen to match Philo's "Logos" (an ArchAngel in Jewish Angelology). See lecture below for more about Philo.

"The Mythical Jesus" by Dr Richard Carrier

James: Biological brother, cult brother, or racist?

Galatians 1:1

"1 Paul, an apostle -- not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who did raise him out of the dead --"

Galatians 1:11-12

"11 And I make known to you, brethren, the good news that were proclaimed by me, that it is not according to man,

12 for neither did I from man receive it, nor was I taught [it], but through a revelation of Jesus Christ,"

Paul prides himself of his knowledge coming only from God, which is through visions and revelations from select verses in the Old Testament (often taking them out of context which the later Gospel writers did to Shoehorn Jesus fulfilling prophecy).

Galatians 1:17-24

"17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem unto those who were apostles before me, but I went away to Arabia, and again returned to Damascus,

18 then, after three years I went up to Jerusalem to enquire about Peter, and remained with him fifteen days,

19 and other of the apostles I did not see, except James, the brother of the Lord.

20 And the things that I write to you, lo, before God -- I lie not;

21 then I came to the regions of Syria and of Cilicia,

22 and was unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea, that [are] in Christ,

23 and only they were hearing, that `he who is persecuting us then, doth now proclaim good news -- the faith that then he was wasting;'

24 and they were glorifying God in me."

Notice Paul says "Apostles before him" as if they received information the same way he did through revelation. Paul does not mention disciples which is a distinction of being hand picked like Jesus did in the later Gospels.

Notice Paul took three years for him to go back to Jerusalem. Maybe because he was persecuting Christians beforehand and wanted to cool off? Even so why would he go there to inquire about just Peter?

There is no argument in academia that Galatians 1:19 is an interpolation. As for me personally I suspect Galatians 1:20 is? Why proclaim that it's not a lie? Considering there are interpolations in Paul's letters, I see Galatians 1:19 as suspect.

* See the scholarship in "Pauline Interpolations":


The "brother of the Lord" is not "cut and dry" as historicists readily accept it to be. There's no added dialogue to confirm biological kinship. It looks as if it's an afterthought on someone with a title that the Church holds? Being in Christ is being in a family which Paul espouses many times. There's no distinction by Paul of being biological, other than James being an Apostle (not Disciple) that's in Christ.

Further scrutiny brings us to Galatians 2:

Background information: Galatians 2 is about the racial divide between Xtian Jew (circumcised/holds dietary laws), and the Xtian Gentiles/Nations (uncircumcised/do not hold to Jewish laws). Paul argues that being in Christ negates Jewish laws, and makes everyone in a spiritual family.

Galatians 2:1-13

"Then, after fourteen years again I went up to Jerusalem with Barnabas, having taken with me also Titus;

2 and I went up by revelation, and did submit to them the good news that I preach among the nations, and privately to those esteemed, lest in vain I might run or did run;

3 but not even Titus, who [is] with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised --

4 and [that] because of the false brethren brought in unawares, who did come in privily to spy out our liberty that we have in Christ Jesus, that us they might bring under bondage,

5 to whom not even for an hour we gave place by subjection, that the truth of the good news might remain to you.

6 And from those who were esteemed to be something -- whatever they were then, it maketh no difference to me -- the face of man God accepteth not, for -- to me those esteemed did add nothing,

7 but, on the contrary, having seen that I have been entrusted with the good news of the uncircumcision, as Peter with [that] of the circumcision,

8 for He who did work with Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, did work also in me in regard to the nations,

9 and having known the grace that was given to me, James, and Cephas, and John, who were esteemed to be pillars, a right hand of fellowship they did give to me, and to Barnabas, that we to the nations, and they to the circumcision [may go],

10 only, of the poor that we should be mindful, which also I was diligent -- this very thing -- to do.

11 And when Peter came to Antioch, to the face I stood up against him, because he was blameworthy,

12 for before the coming of certain from James, with the nations he was eating, and when they came, he was withdrawing and separating himself, fearing those of the circumcision,

13 and dissemble with him also did the other Jews, so that also Barnabas was carried away by their dissimulation."

Notice Paul refers to the "esteemed" as if held in high regard, but not appointed by authority? This is odd considering how the later Gospels shows Jesus selecting Discipleship.

Notice Paul mentions James twice here. Are these the same James? Is the Galatian 1:19 James just a distinction to separate the two James mentioned here?

Notice the Galatian 2:12 James would eat with Gentiles, but with Jews present he would refrain out of fear of fellow Jews. This is very strange behavior for someone being a brother of the Gospel Jesus. That Jesus did not care that his Disciples did not wash their hands, would hang out with sinners, and performed miracles for Gentiles.

Considering how Paul talks about a celestial Jesus the "brother of the Lord" is not proof positive of an historic Jesus. Is James the brother of the Lord just a distinction to separate the James that did not act like he was in a spiritual family? This is odd, and keep in mind that through the centuries Christianity went through filters.

* The later Gospel of Mark (author unknown) looks to be a literary fiction to a mystery Religion. An initiate is told allegory disguised as history, and later told the deeper spiritual meaning. The Gospel of Matthew (all four Gospels are named out of Church tradition) corrects Mark's Jewish Theology, and geographical mistakes, also adds the Nativity dialogue. Over time the Gospels were taken as literal doctrine.

Mythmaking in the New Testament (Richard Carrier)

Why the Gospels Are Myth: The Evidence of Genre and Content (Carrier)

Ten Lies About Jesus: David Fitzgerald

The Gospel of Mark which is seen by most scholars as the first written Gospel (circa 70's CE) is chock full of spiritual allegory. The fleeing naked young man is just one of many that's mistaken as historical kernels of truth.

Mark 14:48-52

"48 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and with staves to take me?

49 I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the scriptures must be fulfilled.

50 And they all forsook him, and fled.

51 And there followed him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young man laid hold on him:

52 And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked."

Now who's this young man covered with common linen cloth which easily sheds away?

Mark 16:3-8

"3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?

4 And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.

5 And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.

6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him.

7 But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.

8 And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid."

Now who's this young man wearing an uncommonly clean, and luxurious white Robe?

Now the argument for the hypothetical "Q" makes it look like a single document. In reality the unknown authors of the canonical Gospels drew on many sources, and some we no longer have. As for the young men in Mark we can see the spiritual meaning, and it's inspiration from Paul.

1 Corinthians 15:47-53 (circa 50's CE)

"47 The first man is of the earth, earthy; the second man is the Lord from heaven.

48 As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.

49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.

50 Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.

51 Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,

52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality."

The garment of the young man fleeing Jesus represents the Earthly flesh that decays, and the empty Tomb young man's garment represents Heavenly flesh that's incorruptible.

When you have scholars looking at the Gospels as if it was history embellished instead of the parable within parables that it is? Then no wonder said scholars cannot see how useless the Gospels are for determining Jesus's historicity.

*Do not pick up poisonous Snakes, or drink deadly poison because Mark 16:9-20 is a later forgery.

Here's the scholarship that supports this:


*Dr. Robert M Price: New Testament Narrative as Old Testament Midrash


Leviticus 25:44-46

"44 Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you; of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids.

45 Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land: and they shall be your possession.

46 And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession; they shall be your bondmen for ever: but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour."

Ephesians 6:5

"Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;"

1 Peter 2:18

"Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward."

Colossians 3:22

"Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God;"

"I prayed for twenty years but received no answer until I prayed with my legs."-Frederick Douglas (ex-slave and abolitionist)

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The only mention of Jesus outside the New Testament in the 1st century CE is by the historian Josephus. The two passages are controversial, and show signs of Christian tampering.

Antiquities of the Jews - Book XX

(Origen cites only this passage in the 3rd century in his Apologetic works.)

Book 20 Chapter 9 Page 1

1. AND now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Ananus, who was also himself called Ananus. Now the report goes that this eldest Ananus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. But this younger Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority]. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrim of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.


Is "Who is called Christ" an interpolation using Matthew 1:16?

Matthew 1:16

"16And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ."

Are the Jesus, and James mentioned just the two sons of Damneus?

Antiquities of the Jews - Book XVIII

First qouted by Eusebius a known forger (315 CE),but not mentioned by earlier apologists like Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and *Origen (140-230 CE).The passage conflicts with Josephus's own belief that Vespasian is the Messiah.

Book 18 Chapter 3 Page 3

3. Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.


Josephus would not write this, so apologists point to a partial interpolation.

Just take it one step further by reading the passage before it, skip the Jesus passage, and read the passage after. Notice how the two passages flow without the Jesus passage?

There's a copy with a not so pro "Jesus is the Christ" passage that has been found, but this copy points to going through the hands of Eusebius as well.

An in depth article for and against of Josephus Jesus passages:


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Here's a blatant example of the Gospel of Mark making up history to convey an underlining Theological theme. No debunking of miracles needed.

Looking at Leviticus we see the "ScapeGoat" ritual using two Goats. One Goat is set free into the wilderness. The other Goat is offered up as a Sin offering.

Leviticus 16:7-10

"7 And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.

8 And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the Lord, and the other lot for the scapegoat.

9 And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the Lord's lot fell, and offer him for a sin offering.

10 But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the Lord, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness."

Jesus after facing Pilate is offered by him to be released. Instead of Jesus (Son of God) being released, Barabbas (Son the Father) is released, and Jesus is sacrificed.

Mark 15:6-15

"6 Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.

7 And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.

8 And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.

9 But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

10 For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.

11 But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.

12 And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do unto him whom ye call the King of the Jews?

13 And they cried out again, Crucify him.

14 Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.

15 And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified."

Now there's no tradition of Romans releasing prisoners let alone a murderous insurrectionist. It says Pilate (Mark 15:6) did this. This flies in the face of what we know of Pilate in ancient writings. The Gospels portrays Pilate as soft, but the writings of Philo and Josephus show him to be brutal which ends up getting him in trouble. See below:

Let's Compare Pontius Pilate

Do the Gospels portray an accurate account of Pontius Pilate?Or do the Gospels use Pilate as a literary tool to prop fiction as history? 

The most contemporary account of Pilate is in Philo's "Embassy to Gaius".Due to Jewish persecution in Alexandria Philo is part of a group that went to Rome to make a plea to Emperor Caligula.

Philo mentions Pilate's actions during the reign of Emperor Tiberius.Philo has very negative things to say about Pilate, mainly his inflexibility till he gets in trouble with the Emperor.

Philo Embassy to Gaius (40 CE)

(298) "What again did your other grandfather, Tiberius Caesar, do? does not he appear to have adopted an exactly similar line of conduct? At all events, during the three and twenty years that he was emperor, he preserved the form of worship in the temple as it had been handed down from the earliest times, without abrogating or altering the slightest particular of it.

XXXVIII. (299) "Moreover, I have it in my power to relate one act of ambition on his part, though I suffered an infinite number of evils when he was alive; but nevertheless the truth is considered dear, and much to be honoured by you. Pilate was one of the emperor's lieutenants, having been appointed governor of Judaea. He, not more with the object of doing honour to Tiberius than with that of vexing the multitude, dedicated some gilt shields in the palace of Herod, in the holy city; which had no form nor any other forbidden thing represented on them except some necessary inscription, which mentioned these two facts, the name of the person who had placed them there, and the person in whose honour they were so placed there. (300) But when the multitude heard what had been done, and when the circumstance became notorious, then the people, putting forward the four sons of the king, who were in no respect inferior to the kings themselves, in fortune or in rank, and his other descendants, and those magistrates who were among them at the time, entreated him to alter and to rectify the innovation which he had committed in respect of the shields; and not to make any alteration in their national customs, which had hitherto been preserved without any interruption, without being in the least degree changed by any king of emperor. (301) "But when he steadfastly refused this petition (for he was a man of a very inflexible disposition, and very merciless as well as very obstinate), they cried out: 'Do not cause a sedition; do not make war upon us; do not destroy the peace which exists. The honour of the emperor is not identical with dishonour to the ancient laws; let it not be to you a pretence for heaping insult on our nation. Tiberius is not desirous that any of our laws or customs shall be destroyed. And if you yourself say that he is, show us either some command from him, or some letter, or something of the kind, that we, who have been sent to you as ambassadors, may cease to trouble you, and may address our supplications to your master.' (302) "But this last sentence exasperated him in the greatest possible degree, as he feared least they might in reality go on an embassy to the emperor, and might impeach him with respect to other particulars of his government, in respect of his corruption, and his acts of insolence, and his rapine, and his habit of insulting people, and his cruelty, and his continual murders of people untried and uncondemned, and his never ending, and gratuitous, and most grievous inhumanity. (303) Therefore, being exceedingly angry, and being at all times a man of most ferocious passions, he was in great perplexity, neither venturing to take down what he had once set up, nor wishing to do any thing which could be acceptable to his subjects, and at the same time being sufficiently acquainted with the firmness of Tiberius on these points. And those who were in power in our nation, seeing this, and perceiving that he was inclined to change his mind as to what he had done, but that he was not willing to be thought to do so, wrote a most supplicatory letter to Tiberius. (304) And he, when he had read it, what did he say of Pilate, and what threats did he utter against him! But it is beside our purpose at present to relate to you how very angry he was, although he was not very liable to sudden anger; since the facts speak for themselves; (305) for immediately, without putting any thing off till the next day, he wrote a letter, reproaching and reviling him in the most bitter manner for his act of unprecedented audacity and wickedness, and commanding him immediately to take down the shields and to convey them away from the metropolis of Judaea to Caesarea, on the sea which had been named Caesarea Augusta, after his grandfather, in order that they might be set up in the temple of Augustus. And accordingly, they were set up in that edifice. And in this way he provided for two matters: both for the honour due to the emperor, and for the preservation of the ancient customs of the city.


Josephus mentions Pilate in two of his Books.Though some slight differences in Josephus's history compared to Philo's, Pilate is still regarded in a negative light.

Josephus War of the Jews (75 CE)

Book II Chapter 9.2-4

2. Now Pilate, who was sent as procurator into Judea by Tiberius, sent by night those images of Caesar that are called ensigns into Jerusalem. This excited a very among great tumult among the Jews when it was day; for those that were near them were astonished at the sight of them, as indications that their laws were trodden under foot; for those laws do not permit any sort of image to be brought into the city. Nay, besides the indignation which the citizens had themselves at this procedure, a vast number of people came running out of the country. These came zealously to Pilate to Cesarea, and besought him to carry those ensigns out of Jerusalem, and to preserve them their ancient laws inviolable; but upon Pilate's denial of their request, they fell down prostrate upon the ground, and continued immovable in that posture for five days and as many nights.

3. On the next day Pilate sat upon his tribunal, in the open market-place, and called to him the multitude, as desirous to give them an answer; and then gave a signal to the soldiers, that they should all by agreement at once encompass the Jews with their weapons; so the band of soldiers stood round about the Jews in three ranks. The Jews were under the utmost consternation at that unexpected sight. Pilate also said to them that they should be cut in pieces, unless they would admit of Caesar's images, and gave intimation to the soldiers to draw their naked swords. Hereupon the Jews, as it were at one signal, fell down in vast numbers together, and exposed their necks bare, and cried out that they were sooner ready to be slain, than that their law should be transgressed. Hereupon Pilate was greatly surprised at their prodigious superstition, and gave order that the ensigns should be presently carried out of Jerusalem.

4. After this he raised another disturbance, by expending that sacred treasure which is called Corban upon aqueducts, whereby he brought water from the distance of four hundred furlongs. At this the multitude had indignation; and when Pilate was come to Jerusalem, they came about his tribunal, and made a clamor at it. Now when he was apprized aforehand of this disturbance, he mixed his own soldiers in their armor with the multitude, and ordered them to conceal themselves under the habits of private men, and not indeed to use their swords, but with their staves to beat those that made the clamor. He then gave the signal from his tribunal [to do as he had bidden them]. Now the Jews were so sadly beaten, that many of them perished by the stripes they received, and many of them perished as trodden to death by themselves; by which means the multitude was astonished at the calamity of those that were slain, and held their peace.


Josephus Antiquities (94 CE)

Book 18 Chapter 3.1-2

1. BUT now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Cesarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Caesar's effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images; on which account the former procurators were wont to make their entry into the city with such ensigns as had not those ornaments. Pilate was the first who brought those images to Jerusalem, and set them up there; which was done without the knowledge of the people, because it was done in the night time; but as soon as they knew it, they came in multitudes to Cesarea, and interceded with Pilate many days that he would remove the images; and when he would not grant their requests, because it would tend to the injury of Caesar, while yet they persevered in their request, on the sixth day he ordered his soldiers to have their weapons privately, while he came and sat upon his judgment-seat, which seat was so prepared in the open place of the city, that it concealed the army that lay ready to oppress them; and when the Jews petitioned him again, he gave a signal to the soldiers to encompass them routed, and threatened that their punishment should be no less than immediate death, unless they would leave off disturbing him, and go their ways home. But they threw themselves upon the ground, and laid their necks bare, and said they would take their death very willingly, rather than the wisdom of their laws should be transgressed; upon which Pilate was deeply affected with their firm resolution to keep their laws inviolable, and presently commanded the images to be carried back from Jerusalem to Cesarea.

2. But Pilate undertook to bring a current of water to Jerusalem, and did it with the sacred money, and derived the origin of the stream from the distance of two hundred furlongs. However, the Jews were not pleased with what had been done about this water; and many ten thousands of the people got together, and made a clamor against him, and insisted that he should leave off that design. Some of them also used reproaches, and abused the man, as crowds of such people usually do. So he habited a great number of his soldiers in their habit, who carried daggers under their garments, and sent them to a place where they might surround them. So he bid the Jews himself go away; but they boldly casting reproaches upon him, he gave the soldiers that signal which had been beforehand agreed on; who laid upon them much greater blows than Pilate had commanded them, and equally punished those that were tumultuous, and those that were not; nor did they spare them in the least: and since the people were unarmed, and were caught by men prepared for what they were about, there were a great number of them slain by this means, and others of them ran away wounded. And thus an end was put to this sedition. 

Book 18 Chapter 4.1-2

1. BUT the nation of the Samaritans did not escape without tumults. The man who excited them to it was one who thought lying a thing of little consequence, and who contrived every thing so that the multitude might be pleased; so he bid them to get together upon Mount Gerizzim, which is by them looked upon as the most holy of all mountains, and assured them, that when they were come thither, he would show them those sacred vessels which were laid under that place, because Moses put them there  So they came thither armed, and thought the discourse of the man probable; and as they abode at a certain village, which was called Tirathaba, they got the rest together to them, and desired to go up the mountain in a great multitude together; but Pilate prevented their going up, by seizing upon file roads with a great band of horsemen and foot-men, who fell upon those that were gotten together in the village; and when it came to an action, some of them they slew, and others of them they put to flight, and took a great many alive, the principal of which, and also the most potent of those that fled away, Pilate ordered to be slain.

2. But when this tumult was appeased, the Samaritan senate sent an embassy to Vitellius, a man that had been consul, and who was now president of Syria, and accused Pilate of the murder of those that were killed; for that they did not go to Tirathaba in order to revolt from the Romans, but to escape the violence of Pilate. So Vitellius sent Marcellus, a friend of his, to take care of the affairs of Judea, and ordered Pilate to go to Rome, to answer before the emperor to the accusations of the Jews. So Pilate, when he had tarried ten years in Judea, made haste to Rome, and this in obedience to the orders of Vitellius, which he durst not contradict; but before he could get to Rome Tiberius was dead.


Animals offered for sacrifice have to be unblemished. The unknown author of Mark used Barabbas as a literary device. Barabbas (Son of the Father) is full of sin is rejected as a sacrifice. Jesus (Son of God) is the perfect sacrifice for the atonement of Sin.

Barabbas "son of the father"


Another example of the Gospel going against history is the crucifixion it's self. Passover is a high holy day. It's like if we held executions on Christmas. The Jewish Priests are worried of causing a riot so they seize Jesus at night. Meanwhile they hold a public execution instead of waiting for the Pilgrims for the Passover go home. Besides blasphemous people were usually stoned on the spot.

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Who comes, and goes from Earth to Heaven?

Job 1:7

"And the Lord said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it."

Who are the "princes of this world" that would be against eternal life for mankind?

1 Corinthians 2:6-9

"6 Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought:

7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory:

8 Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

9 But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him."

Hey Jews here's a secret, keep it on the down low. God sent his son to be killed, and his magic resurrected Blood will give eternal life for those that love God. Are y'all down with this?

Yo Romans...Shhh quiet. That hippie dude over there is the creator of the universe's son. Yah know..The top of the top. Well he was sent down to free you from rotting in the grave. You just have to kill him. Yeah...no *snip*. Dis fo realz. He's infused with some serious mojo of the ultimate sacrifice even though he will be cloud surfing 3 days later anyway. So you up and up with the master plan?

Excuse me Satan. I know you, and your fallen minions like to cause misery to mankind. The thing is God is sending his son to replace the Temple cult for the remission of sins of man. He just has to be killed to shed God's love for his favorite creation. God wants to know if you will do the honor. What's that...Oh no. God's son will just resurrect, and return back to his father in great glory. So are you interested?

The later Gospels put Jesus in history. The thing is are they the kernel of history of a man named Jesus that lived in 1st century Palestine?

The Gospels show signs of literay creation through and through which is not recording history.

This example shows Jesus one ups the OT Prophet Jonah with inspiration from verses in Psalm. Notice Jonah is thrown in the sea, and the storm stops. Jesus rebukes the storm, and walks on water.

Notice I expanded the texts to show reversals, parallels, and the midrashic hypertext used to create Mark's Gospel.

Jonah 1

"1 Now the word of the Lord came unto Jonah the son of Amittai, saying,

2 Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

3 But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the Lord, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the Lord.

4 But the Lord sent out a great wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken.

5 Then the mariners were afraid, and cried every man unto his god, and cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it of them. But Jonah was gone down into the sides of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep.

6 So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? arise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.

7 And they said every one to his fellow, Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us. So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah.

8 Then said they unto him, Tell us, we pray thee, for whose cause this evil is upon us; What is thine occupation? and whence comest thou? what is thy country? and of what people art thou?

9 And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew; and I fear the Lord, the God of heaven, which hath made the sea and the dry land.

10 Then were the men exceedingly afraid, and said unto him. Why hast thou done this? For the men knew that he fled from the presence of the Lord, because he had told them.

11 Then said they unto him, What shall we do unto thee, that the sea may be calm unto us? for the sea wrought, and was tempestuous.

12 And he said unto them, Take me up, and cast me forth into the sea; so shall the sea be calm unto you: for I know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you.

13 Nevertheless the men rowed hard to bring it to the land; but they could not: for the sea wrought, and was tempestuous against them.

14 Wherefore they cried unto the Lord, and said, We beseech thee, O Lord, we beseech thee, let us not perish for this man's life, and lay not upon us innocent blood: for thou, O Lord, hast done as it pleased thee.

15 So they took up Jonah, and cast him forth into the sea: and the sea ceased from her raging.

16 Then the men feared the Lord exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the Lord, and made vows.

17 Now the Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights."

Psalm 107:23-29

"23 They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters;

24 These see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep.

25 For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof.

26 They mount up to the heaven, they go down again to the depths: their soul is melted because of trouble.

27 They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wit's end.

28 Then they cry unto the Lord in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses.

29 He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thereof are still."

Mark 4:35-41

"35 And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side.

36 And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship. And there were also with him other little ships.

37 And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full.

38 And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish?

39 And he arose, and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still. And the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.

40 And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith?

41 And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?"

Mark 6:47-49

"47 And when even was come, the ship was in the midst of the sea, and he alone on the land.

48 And he saw them toiling in rowing; for the wind was contrary unto them: and about the fourth watch of the night he cometh unto them, walking upon the sea, and would have passed by them.

49 But when they saw him walking upon the sea, they supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out:"

Some scholars think Mark had some inspiration from Homer's "Odyssey" with the magic Sack of Wind?

"10:46 “So they spoke, and the evil counsel of my comrades prevailed. They loosed the wallet, and all the winds leapt forth, and swiftly the storm-wind seized them and bore them weeping out to sea away from their native land; but as for me, I awoke, and pondered in my goodly heart whether I should fling myself from the ship and perish in the sea, or endure in silence and still remain among the living. However, I endured and abode, and covering my head lay down in the ship. But the ships were borne by an evil blast of wind back to the Aeolian isle; and my comrades groaned."


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Mark 1:2-3

"As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight."

Exodus 23:20

"Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared."

Malachi 3:1

"Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts."

Isaiah 40:3

"The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God."

Mark 1:10

11 And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."

Psalm 2:7

"I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee."

Isaiah 42:1

"Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles."

Genesis 22:11-12

"11 And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I.

12 And he said, Lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me."

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Mark 9:2-4

"2 And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them.

3 And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them.

4 And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus."

Exodus 24:12

"12 And the Lord said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them."

Exodus 24:15-18

"15 And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount.

16 And the glory of the Lord abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud."

17 And the sight of the glory of the Lord was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel.

18 And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights."

Exodus 34:29

"29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him."

Malachi 3:2

"2 But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap:"

Mark 9:9

"9 And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead."

Daniel 12:4

"4 But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased."

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