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# Girdle stones in the Great Pyramid

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I provide below my analysis of what I think the function of the girdle stone was in the great pyramid. Below I have a few bullet points and some simulations in Ansys at the end, let me know what you think.

1) See below for the location of the girdle stones in the Great Pyramid.

2) The granite plugs which you can see at the above picture at the lower portion of the descending passage weight around 7 tones and were held in the Grand Gallery before slid down the ascending passage [1].

3) When slid down, they would accelerate along the length of the ascending passage before reaching the junction where ascending and descending passage meet. Based on the length, weight, inclination and speed, I estimate the plugs would accumulate at that point around 1,200,000 Jouls of energy. To put this in perspective, this is about as much energy as a car would have running at a speed of 90 miles per and hitting a wall. That is too much energy to handle for the junction. Most likely at that speed, a granite plug would take significant portion of the stone work at the junction where AP and DP meet. The first plug would put stress, two others following the first would finish the job.

4) As I explained in this paper [2][3]. I believe the granite plugs worked as an emergency stop in the pyramid. The granite plugs would slid down and block hydrogen gas passing through to the Queen's chamber. Someone would be relying on this portion of the system to work flawlessly in case emergency shutdown is needed. Possibility of the damage at that point would not be acceptable. Looking at all perfection in the pyramid it does not appear anything in this system is left to the chance. So, the builders needed to develop the intelligent way to control the speed of the granite plugs to prevent any possibility of the damage.

5) When plugs are slid down the ascending passage, the friction would work to slow those down. Though, I doubt much would be present. With moisture trapped in the pyramid, most likely, the surfaces would be covered with biofilm. The plugs would slid on the surface with least resistance as rock on ice.

6) Not many know, but granite material can be magnetic. What makes it magnetic not Sio2 (or Quartz) present in the granite but other minerals which make up about 40% of the granite. The red granite taken from the Abu Rawash area was analyzed in this paper [4]. Four samples were taken from different deposits. The chart of minerals present in the paper shows significant content of the ferrite. What it means is the granite plugs which are made of the red granite when exposed to magnetic field would get magnetized. Also, the girdle stones are made of limestone. This material is not a good conductor but it depends on its composition and moisture content [5].

7) People are still writing PhD dissertations on certain aspects of the Lenz's force but basic idea is summarized on this page [6]. The magnetic material passing through the coil made of conductive material, induces current in the coil which creates magnetic field opposing the magnetic field of the magnet. All this means that when the granite plug slides through the girdle stone there will force acting on the plug slowing it down.

8) Ansys Maxwell is a simulation tool that allows to simulate coupled mechanical with electromagnetic problems. I ran a few simulations in Ansys to demonstrate the concept (See animation here [7]). A granite plug slides down the descending passage, passing through the girdle stone. Note the speed of the plug slows down as it gets close to the stone. Only one stone is simulated here but all others present in the descending passage would have similar impact on the speed. One other thing to mention, the faster plug slides more force is acting on it trying to slow it down. The lesser is the speed, the lesser is the force. So, essentially this technique controls the speed of the granite plugs regardless of the condition of the surface floor (moisture, biofilm) which the builders of the pyramid for sure could not predict over the millennia the pyramid could be in use.

9) As a few motioned, the girdle stones in the descending passage are made of different materials. The best effect on the speed would be achieved if the girdle stones are isolated from each other. A simple way to achieve that would be to sandwich girdle stones made of conductive limestone between layers of the nonconductive limestone (Tura limestone would be a good material for that which we know present in the descending passage). This may be one reason why builders used different type of limestone in that portion of the pyramid.

References:

[1] Alen Alford "Pyramid of Secrets: The Architecture of the Great Pyramid Reconsidered in the Light of Creational Mythology" Feb 24, 2003, ISBN-10: 0952799421

[4] Atef El-Taher "Rare Earth Elements in Egyptian Granite by Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis" 2006

[5] Marzouk M. Bekhit, Saad A Khalil “Electrical Properties of Moist Limestone Samples
In The Frequency Range 1Hz-10 Hz From Abu Rawash Area” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1 (4): 741-750, Year: 2007

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20 hours ago, kborissov said:

I provide below my analysis of what I think the function of the girdle stone was in the great pyramid. Below I have a few bullet points and some simulations in Ansys at the end, let me know what you think.

1) See below for the location of the girdle stones in the Great Pyramid.

2) The granite plugs which you can see at the above picture at the lower portion of the descending passage weight around 7 tones and were held in the Grand Gallery before slid down the ascending passage [1].

3) When slid down, they would accelerate along the length of the ascending passage before reaching the junction where ascending and descending passage meet. Based on the length, weight, inclination and speed, I estimate the plugs would accumulate at that point around 1,200,000 Jouls of energy. To put this in perspective, this is about as much energy as a car would have running at a speed of 90 miles per and hitting a wall. That is too much energy to handle for the junction. Most likely at that speed, a granite plug would take significant portion of the stone work at the junction where AP and DP meet. The first plug would put stress, two others following the first would finish the job.

4) As I explained in this paper [2][3]. I believe the granite plugs worked as an emergency stop in the pyramid. The granite plugs would slid down and block hydrogen gas passing through to the Queen's chamber. Someone would be relying on this portion of the system to work flawlessly in case emergency shutdown is needed. Possibility of the damage at that point would not be acceptable. Looking at all perfection in the pyramid it does not appear anything in this system is left to the chance. So, the builders needed to develop the intelligent way to control the speed of the granite plugs to prevent any possibility of the damage.

5) When plugs are slid down the ascending passage, the friction would work to slow those down. Though, I doubt much would be present. With moisture trapped in the pyramid, most likely, the surfaces would be covered with biofilm. The plugs would slid on the surface with least resistance as rock on ice.

6) Not many know, but granite material can be magnetic. What makes it magnetic not Sio2 (or Quartz) present in the granite but other minerals which make up about 40% of the granite. The red granite taken from the Abu Rawash area was analyzed in this paper [4]. Four samples were taken from different deposits. The chart of minerals present in the paper shows significant content of the ferrite. What it means is the granite plugs which are made of the red granite when exposed to magnetic field would get magnetized. Also, the girdle stones are made of limestone. This material is not a good conductor but it depends on its composition and moisture content [5].

7) People are still writing PhD dissertations on certain aspects of the Lenz's force but basic idea is summarized on this page [6]. The magnetic material passing through the coil made of conductive material, induces current in the coil which creates magnetic field opposing the magnetic field of the magnet. All this means that when the granite plug slides through the girdle stone there will force acting on the plug slowing it down.

8) Ansys Maxwell is a simulation tool that allows to simulate coupled mechanical with electromagnetic problems. I ran a few simulations in Ansys to demonstrate the concept (See animation here [7]). A granite plug slides down the descending passage, passing through the girdle stone. Note the speed of the plug slows down as it gets close to the stone. Only one stone is simulated here but all others present in the descending passage would have similar impact on the speed. One other thing to mention, the faster plug slides more force is acting on it trying to slow it down. The lesser is the speed, the lesser is the force. So, essentially this technique controls the speed of the granite plugs regardless of the condition of the surface floor (moisture, biofilm) which the builders of the pyramid for sure could not predict over the millennia the pyramid could be in use.

9) As a few motioned, the girdle stones in the descending passage are made of different materials. The best effect on the speed would be achieved if the girdle stones are isolated from each other. A simple way to achieve that would be to sandwich girdle stones made of conductive limestone between layers of the nonconductive limestone (Tura limestone would be a good material for that which we know present in the descending passage). This may be one reason why builders used different type of limestone in that portion of the pyramid.

References:

[1] Alen Alford "Pyramid of Secrets: The Architecture of the Great Pyramid Reconsidered in the Light of Creational Mythology" Feb 24, 2003, ISBN-10: 0952799421

[4] Atef El-Taher "Rare Earth Elements in Egyptian Granite by Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis" 2006

[5] Marzouk M. Bekhit, Saad A Khalil “Electrical Properties of Moist Limestone Samples
In The Frequency Range 1Hz-10 Hz From Abu Rawash Area” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1 (4): 741-750, Year: 2007

Then there would be evidence of wear patterns in the stone floor and wall surfaces which does not seem to be there.

jmccr8

Edited by jmccr8
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1 hour ago, jmccr8 said:

Then there would be evidence of wear patterns in the stone floor and wall surfaces which does not seem to be there.

jmccr8

I am not saying they were continuously slid down back and forth.

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24 minutes ago, kborissov said:

I am not saying they were continuously slid down back and forth.

Well you were talking about slope speed and reaction so how often would you need to slide the stone to get the required reaction and you also have a made mention of over a period of a millenium so I would be inclined to think that there would be some noticable signs of friction.

jmccr8

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23 hours ago, kborissov said:

I provide below my analysis of what I think the function of the girdle stone was in the great pyramid. Below I have a few bullet points and some simulations in Ansys at the end, let me know what you think.

References:

[1] Alen Alford "Pyramid of Secrets: The Architecture of the Great Pyramid Reconsidered in the Light of Creational Mythology" Feb 24, 2003, ISBN-10: 0952799421

[4] Atef El-Taher "Rare Earth Elements in Egyptian Granite by Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis" 2006

[5] Marzouk M. Bekhit, Saad A Khalil “Electrical Properties of Moist Limestone Samples
In The Frequency Range 1Hz-10 Hz From Abu Rawash Area” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1 (4): 741-750, Year: 2007

1) Do seriously consider the tolerances involved in "sealing" hydrogen gas. Seriously consider.

2) Rather sadly, you have clearly established the reference reliability of the "Ancient Origins" website. Furthermore, you have cast quite a cloud over the credibility of Academia.edu. The latter resource can contain credible research. However, you have now brought their standards into a troubling degree of question. Rather akin to Research Gate.

Edit: Delete extraneous material.

.

Edited by Swede
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3 hours ago, Sir Wearer of Hats said:

NURSE, HE’S OUT OF BED AGAIN!

You'd think somebody would tighten the bloody restraints properly by now...

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1 hour ago, jmccr8 said:

Well you were talking about slope speed and reaction so how often would you need to slide the stone to get the required reaction and you also have a made mention of over a period of a millenium so I would be inclined to think that there would be some noticable signs of friction.

jmccr8

Quite so. Use wear would be well evidenced. And, as per the previous, the purported requisite tolerances vs. lithic materials/construction/abrasive reduction are yet more factors that make the entire proposition simply untenable.

.

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5 minutes ago, Piney said:

You'd think somebody would tighten the bloody restraints properly by now...

Chuckle! Shades of Bedlam.

.

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4 minutes ago, Gaden said:

I thought this thread was working quite well before anyone responded.

Hi Gaden

Yeah well you know how us party crasher are in for a dime in for a dollar.

jmccr8

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2 hours ago, jmccr8 said:

Well you were talking about slope speed and reaction so how often would you need to slide the stone to get the required reaction and you also have a made mention of over a period of a millenium so I would be inclined to think that there would be some noticable signs of friction.

jmccr8

I do not think you read or understood what I said in the OP. I said the plugs were used only as emergency stop. That would be used once in a life time only when needed. The fact that the plugs were slid is well accepted by both sides of the camps, a few doubt that.

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1 hour ago, Swede said:

1) Do seriously consider the tolerances involved in "sealing" hydrogen gas. Seriously consider.

2) Rather sadly, you have clearly established the reference reliability of the "Ancient Origins" website. Furthermore, you have cast quite a cloud over the credibility of Academia.edu. The latter resource can contain credible research. However, you have now brought their standards into a troubling degree of question. Rather akin to Research Gate.

Edit: Delete extraneous material.

.

I will ignore the last bullet as it has nothing to do with this theory. As far as the hydrogen, not sure this is relevant to this post ether.

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10 hours ago, kborissov said:

I do not think you read or understood what I said in the OP. I said the plugs were used only as emergency stop. That would be used once in a life time only when needed. The fact that the plugs were slid is well accepted by both sides of the camps, a few doubt that.

I have read through several times now and have reasonable doubt that the hypothesis that you are putting forward is unacceptable. First off you are claiming tech beyond the capabilities of any known cultures of the time. Secondly gas is highly combustible and the sanity of sliding stone that distance and generating friction heat and potential spark is questionable even once.

jmccr8

Edited by jmccr8
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On 5/15/2018 at 2:42 AM, kborissov said:

I provide below my analysis of what I think the function of the girdle stone was in the great pyramid. Below I have a few bullet points and some simulations in Ansys at the end, let me know what you think.

1) See below for the location of the girdle stones in the Great Pyramid.

2) The granite plugs which you can see at the above picture at the lower portion of the descending passage weight around 7 tones and were held in the Grand Gallery before slid down the ascending passage [1].

3) When slid down, they would accelerate along the length of the ascending passage before reaching the junction where ascending and descending passage meet. Based on the length, weight, inclination and speed, I estimate the plugs would accumulate at that point around 1,200,000 Jouls of energy. To put this in perspective, this is about as much energy as a car would have running at a speed of 90 miles per and hitting a wall. That is too much energy to handle for the junction. Most likely at that speed, a granite plug would take significant portion of the stone work at the junction where AP and DP meet. The first plug would put stress, two others following the first would finish the job.

4) As I explained in this paper [2][3]. I believe the granite plugs worked as an emergency stop in the pyramid. The granite plugs would slid down and block hydrogen gas passing through to the Queen's chamber. Someone would be relying on this portion of the system to work flawlessly in case emergency shutdown is needed. Possibility of the damage at that point would not be acceptable. Looking at all perfection in the pyramid it does not appear anything in this system is left to the chance. So, the builders needed to develop the intelligent way to control the speed of the granite plugs to prevent any possibility of the damage.

5) When plugs are slid down the ascending passage, the friction would work to slow those down. Though, I doubt much would be present. With moisture trapped in the pyramid, most likely, the surfaces would be covered with biofilm. The plugs would slid on the surface with least resistance as rock on ice.

6) Not many know, but granite material can be magnetic. What makes it magnetic not Sio2 (or Quartz) present in the granite but other minerals which make up about 40% of the granite. The red granite taken from the Abu Rawash area was analyzed in this paper [4]. Four samples were taken from different deposits. The chart of minerals present in the paper shows significant content of the ferrite. What it means is the granite plugs which are made of the red granite when exposed to magnetic field would get magnetized. Also, the girdle stones are made of limestone. This material is not a good conductor but it depends on its composition and moisture content [5].

7) People are still writing PhD dissertations on certain aspects of the Lenz's force but basic idea is summarized on this page [6]. The magnetic material passing through the coil made of conductive material, induces current in the coil which creates magnetic field opposing the magnetic field of the magnet. All this means that when the granite plug slides through the girdle stone there will force acting on the plug slowing it down.

8) Ansys Maxwell is a simulation tool that allows to simulate coupled mechanical with electromagnetic problems. I ran a few simulations in Ansys to demonstrate the concept (See animation here [7]). A granite plug slides down the descending passage, passing through the girdle stone. Note the speed of the plug slows down as it gets close to the stone. Only one stone is simulated here but all others present in the descending passage would have similar impact on the speed. One other thing to mention, the faster plug slides more force is acting on it trying to slow it down. The lesser is the speed, the lesser is the force. So, essentially this technique controls the speed of the granite plugs regardless of the condition of the surface floor (moisture, biofilm) which the builders of the pyramid for sure could not predict over the millennia the pyramid could be in use.

9) As a few motioned, the girdle stones in the descending passage are made of different materials. The best effect on the speed would be achieved if the girdle stones are isolated from each other. A simple way to achieve that would be to sandwich girdle stones made of conductive limestone between layers of the nonconductive limestone (Tura limestone would be a good material for that which we know present in the descending passage). This may be one reason why builders used different type of limestone in that portion of the pyramid.

References:

[1] Alen Alford "Pyramid of Secrets: The Architecture of the Great Pyramid Reconsidered in the Light of Creational Mythology" Feb 24, 2003, ISBN-10: 0952799421

[4] Atef El-Taher "Rare Earth Elements in Egyptian Granite by Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis" 2006

[5] Marzouk M. Bekhit, Saad A Khalil “Electrical Properties of Moist Limestone Samples
In The Frequency Range 1Hz-10 Hz From Abu Rawash Area” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1 (4): 741-750, Year: 2007

Dont want to be mean here but I fear I have lost 2 mins of my life reading that. Sorry but no.

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1 hour ago, jmccr8 said:

I have read through several times now and have reasonable doubt that the hypothesis that you are putting forward is unacceptable. First off you are claiming tech beyond the capabilities of any known cultures of the time. Secondly gas is highly combustible and the sanity of sliding stone that distance and generating friction heat and potential spark is questionable even once.

jmccr8

I was thinking this. The gas would ignite and blow the plugs out before they even reached the hole.

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2 minutes ago, Piney said:

I was thinking this. The gas would ignite and blow the plugs out before they even reached the hole.

Hi Piney

Yup, I have worked maintenance shut-downs at refineries and power generating plants not much room for error.

jmccr8

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13 minutes ago, jmccr8 said:

Hi Piney

Yup, I have worked maintenance shut-downs at refineries and power generating plants not much room for error.

jmccr8

Oh, I remember.

I had to take hazmat to keep my forestry F.F. cert. and I had some fun experiences on illegal dump fires.

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19 hours ago, kborissov said:

I will ignore the last bullet as it has nothing to do with this theory. As far as the hydrogen, not sure this is relevant to this post ether.

The granite plugs would slid down and block hydrogen gas passing through to the Queen's chamber. Someone would be relying on this portion of the system to work flawlessly in case emergency shutdown is needed (kborissov #1:4, emphasis added).

There would appear to be a contradiction...

.

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24 minutes ago, Swede said:

The granite plugs would slid down and block hydrogen gas passing through to the Queen's chamber. Someone would be relying on this portion of the system to work flawlessly in case emergency shutdown is needed (kborissov #1:4, emphasis added).

There would appear to be a contradiction...

.

Hi Swede

Noticably so.

jmccr8

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40 minutes ago, jmccr8 said:

Hi Swede

Noticably so.

jmccr8

One of the things we who work dangerous jobs around things that will kill you have that many of those at a desk don't have.

A ounce of common sense....

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11 hours ago, Peter Cox said:

Dont want to be mean here but I fear I have lost 2 mins of my life reading that. Sorry but no.

With apologies, there are no refunds.

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On 5/14/2018 at 5:42 PM, kborissov said:

I didn't see that image in the links you provided, are you associating The Great Pyramid with the Christ angle?

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On 5/14/2018 at 8:42 PM, kborissov said:

2) The granite plugs which you can see at the above picture at the lower portion of the descending passage weight around 7 tones and were held in the Grand Gallery before slid down the ascending passage [1].

Well, not necessarily. They could have been put in at any stage as long as the pyramid was unfinished.

Quote

3) When slid down, they would accelerate along the length of the ascending passage before reaching the junction where ascending and descending passage meet. Based on the length, weight, inclination and speed, I estimate the plugs would accumulate at that point around 1,200,000 Jouls of energy. To put this in perspective, this is about as much energy as a car would have running at a speed of 90 miles per and hitting a wall. That is too much energy to handle for the junction. Most likely at that speed, a granite plug would take significant portion of the stone work at the junction where AP and DP meet. The first plug would put stress, two others following the first would finish the job.

You're assuming a perfectly frictionless surface.  I can assure you that this is not the case.  You're also assuming an airtight fit and this is most definitely not the case in any part of the pyramid.  Also, airtight kind of contradicts frictionless.  If it's got enough wiggle room to move, it's sure not airtight.

Quote

4) As I explained in this paper [2][3]. I believe the granite plugs worked as an emergency stop in the pyramid. The granite plugs would slid down and block hydrogen gas passing through to the Queen's chamber. Someone would be relying on this portion of the system to work flawlessly in case emergency shutdown is needed. Possibility of the damage at that point would not be acceptable. Looking at all perfection in the pyramid it does not appear anything in this system is left to the chance. So, the builders needed to develop the intelligent way to control the speed of the granite plugs to prevent any possibility of the damage.

First, the pyramid is not air tight.  Hydrogen gas would never accumulate.

Second, the pyramid isn't that perfect.  Third, if they wanted to shut things off, they'd just have built the plug in place.

Quote

5) When plugs are slid down the ascending passage, the friction would work to slow those down. Though, I doubt much would be present. With moisture trapped in the pyramid, most likely, the surfaces would be covered with biofilm. The plugs would slid on the surface with least resistance as rock on ice.

Kindly explain what kind of "biofilm" can withstand 7 tons of pressure scraping across them.  I would dearly like to know.

Quote

6) Not many know, but granite material can be magnetic. What makes it magnetic not Sio2 (or Quartz) present in the granite but other minerals which make up about 40% of the granite. The red granite taken from the Abu Rawash area was analyzed in this paper [4]. Four samples were taken from different deposits. The chart of minerals present in the paper shows significant content of the ferrite. What it means is the granite plugs which are made of the red granite when exposed to magnetic field would get magnetized. Also, the girdle stones are made of limestone. This material is not a good conductor but it depends on its composition and moisture content [5].

First, red granite is far less magnetic than hematite or lodestone.  FAR less magnetic.  It doesn't affect compasses.

SECOND, as everyone knows, if you hammer on a magnet, it loses its magnetism.  That's how you quickly de-magnetize things.  Even if red granite had any appreciable amount of magnetism, hammering on it to get out of the quarry and formed into a block would take all the magnetism out of it.

..etc.

Edited by Kenemet
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21 hours ago, jmccr8 said:

I have read through several times now and have reasonable doubt that the hypothesis that you are putting forward is unacceptable. First off you are claiming tech beyond the capabilities of any known cultures of the time. Secondly gas is highly combustible and the sanity of sliding stone that distance and generating friction heat and potential spark is questionable even once.

jmccr8

Wait! I just had a thought! Maybe they used rubber ball bearings?

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