Jump to content
Join the Unexplained Mysteries community today! It's free and setting up an account only takes a moment.
- Sign In or Create Account -
Weitter Duckss

Comoving distance- light travel distance

57 posts in this topic

Recommended Posts

Rlyeh
9 hours ago, Weitter Duckss said:

OK. It only remains. to show me the evidence of that claim. In particular, that you need to explain the claim that space is bright. because "light travels from the sun in all directions." and that they remained blind because they see the darkness.

Already have; "Light is radiation and is detected when it enters a sensor.  Darkness only means no light has reached the sensor. "

 

9 hours ago, Weitter Duckss said:

"Light travels to the earth and is captured by cameras and our eyes." I attached a few pictures that prove the contrary, space is dark. The dark space = no light.

Your pictures show light traveling through space and getting captured by the camera.  Dimwit.

If there is no light in space we'd never see the sun or moon.  Use your brain here.

  • Like 2

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss

@ Rlyeh 

In fact, "dimwit" claims that light a little bit we see we do not see. No light travels because space just above the Moon has no light.

The shock of the waves. in visible matter. formed. light and sensors are visible matter.

From the surface of the body no light is reflected,  because it is near the surface dark, the waves (now with reduced intensity) repel.

 

@ ChrLzs

These are fairy tales for young children without any evidence. This segment is not covered by this discussion. I begin the debate with the first evidence

„The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the Universe. Under this theory, space and time emerged together 13.799±0.021 billion years ago with a fixed amount of energy and matter that has become less dense as the Universe has expanded. ..
when the temperature was around 3000 K or when the universe was approximately 379,000 years old. As photons did not interact with these electrically neutral atoms, the former began to travel freely through space, resulting in the decoupling of matter and radiation.

The speed of light in a vacuum is defined to be exactly 299,792,458 m/s.“ 

 

Galaxies form within the so-called early universe (320000 to 400,000 years).

Below in the figure, numbers 1-4 are the Milky Way and other galaxies (see table above). Now (from this point) begins to present evidence and argument based on the evidence. (BD + 17 ° 3248 is a cluster in the Milky Way, only 968 light years away and the estimated age of  13,8±4 G years)

svemir

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Rlyeh

@Weitter Duckss "The color black usually signals the absence of light. But inside the solar system, space is filled with light."

https://www.livescience.com/32419-why-does-outer-space-look-black.html

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss
6 hours ago, Rlyeh said:

@Weitter Duckss "The color black usually signals the absence of light. But inside the solar system, space is filled with light."

https://www.livescience.com/32419-why-does-outer-space-look-black.html

A good believer believes in fairy tales. Don't forget to turn on the lights on the car at night, no matter that the night is full of lights that we just don't see.

image.jpeg.e109d27afa5788da209ddf1e97354164.jpeg

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Rlyeh
12 minutes ago, Weitter Duckss said:

A good believer believes in fairy tales. Don't forget to turn on the lights on the car at night, no matter that the night is full of lights that we just don't see.

Denial is the only thing you have.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss
43 minutes ago, Rlyeh said:

Denial is the only thing you have.

I'm just looking for evidence, nothing more. I'm not blind that someone convinces me that night = day. It is either black or white (light or dark).

Light means something is illuminate and I don't have to light a candle. The room is dark at night until you turn on the light bulb.

That this is so, open the internet and search for dark space pictures and see for yourself. There are no fairy tales there, there are only pictures. It's a condition to believe with your own eyes.

I went through all the fairy tales and suggestions individually. On all that I found I found where the drawback was. Most have in common: manipulation. Most manipulations are revealed by many photographs from space. That is not a matter out there far and inaccessible. It is here today. Thousands of satellites and astronomers testify to this.

This is in rank today The Earth revolves around the Sun.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Rlyeh
7 minutes ago, Weitter Duckss said:

I'm just looking for evidence, nothing more. I'm not blind that someone convinces me that night = day. It is either black or white (light or dark).

No, you ignore it.  Your photos show light in space, the light traveled from the object to the camera, therefore light exists in space.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss
23 minutes ago, Rlyeh said:

No, you ignore it.  Your photos show light in space, the light traveled from the object to the camera, therefore light exists in space.

The photos are not mine. Right, they show light on bodies, inaccurately, they don't show light in space.

It's okay if you want to continue on your path.

Let's try to discuss the topic now  Comoving distance- light travel distance.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Rlyeh
1 hour ago, Weitter Duckss said:

The photos are not mine. Right, they show light on bodies, inaccurately, they don't show light in space.

It's okay if you want to continue on your path.

Let's try to discuss the topic now  Comoving distance- light travel distance.

No they show light coming from the bodies.  A camera works by capturing light.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss
2 hours ago, Rlyeh said:

No they show light coming from the bodies.  A camera works by capturing light.

And the microwave oven heats but uses no light and photons. It can also produce light and ignite the material (food).

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Rlyeh
12 hours ago, Weitter Duckss said:

And the microwave oven heats but uses no light and photons. It can also produce light and ignite the material (food).

Microwave radiation is of the light spectrum.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss
7 hours ago, Rlyeh said:

Microwave radiation is of the light spectrum.

A few hours I checked your claim.

Conclusion: It is incorrect.

I had to turn off the bulb in the microwave and make sure it was heating the food. When I was convinced of correctness, I checked your claim. It does not light at all (nothing is visible). I used a magnifying glass and witnesses. Classic black body. Everything works but nothing gives light.

Feel free to check, you must have a microwave.

After checking, remove the link that tells this lie.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Rlyeh
3 hours ago, Weitter Duckss said:

A few hours I checked your claim.

Conclusion: It is incorrect.

I had to turn off the bulb in the microwave and make sure it was heating the food. When I was convinced of correctness, I checked your claim. It does not light at all (nothing is visible). I used a magnifying glass and witnesses. Classic black body. Everything works but nothing gives light.

Feel free to check, you must have a microwave.

After checking, remove the link that tells this lie.

You are incorrect, I never said microwave radiation was visible.  Microwave radiation is electromagnetic radiation, visible light is also electromagnetic radiation.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss
2 hours ago, Rlyeh said:

You are incorrect, I never said microwave radiation was visible.  Microwave radiation is electromagnetic radiation, visible light is also electromagnetic radiation.

Now we can confirm:

The waves (any spectrum of radiation) do not light,

Hits the waves into visible matter (of sufficiently high intensity and duration) produce heat and light.

In space are waves that (except light) produce no significant temperature. That's why the space is cold and black.

Power waves (intensity) in space decreases (except for the thermal deviation of 1-5,2 Au in our system) due to friction with the "unknown" matter.

(Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878)

The body in orbit around the Sun

Minimum temperatures °K

Distance from the Sun AU

Mercury

80 (100 equator) 

0,39

 

Moon

100

1

 

Mars

143

1.52

 

Vesta

85

2,36

 

Ceres

168

2,77

 

67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

180

3,46

 

Callisto

80±5

5.20

 

Triton

38

30,11

 

Pluto

33

39,48

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Rlyeh
9 hours ago, Weitter Duckss said:

Now we can confirm:

The waves (any spectrum of radiation) do not light

Wrong, you're confusing lighting (action) with light (a thing).  "Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum."

And "In physics, the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not. In this sense, gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves are also light"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light

Edited by Rlyeh
  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
psyche101
On 11/26/2019 at 5:50 PM, Rlyeh said:

Microwave radiation is of the light spectrum.

IR too. :)

 

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss
8 hours ago, Rlyeh said:

Wrong, you're confusing lighting (action) with light (a thing).  "Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum."

And "In physics, the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not. In this sense, gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves are also light"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light

and@psyche101

I

 The Sun emits X-raysultravioletvisible lightinfrared, and even radio waves;“

Visible Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The word usually refers to visible light, which is the portion of the spectrum that can be perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometers (nm), or 4.00 × 10−7 to 7.00 × 10−7 m, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430–750 terahertz (THz).

II

 Maxwell discovered that self-propagating electromagnetic waves would travel through space at a constant speed, which happened to be equal to the previously measured speed of light.“

„Eventually the modern theory of quantum mechanics came to picture light as (in some sense) both a particle and a wave, and (in another sense), as a phenomenon which is neither a particle nor a wave (which actually are macroscopic phenomena, such as baseballs or ocean waves). Instead, modern physics sees light as something that can be described sometimes with mathematics appropriate to one type of macroscopic metaphor (particles), and sometimes another macroscopic metaphor (water waves), but is actually something that cannot be fully imagined.“

III

The definition of light (and waves of radiation) according to W.Duckss in which there is no such nonsense and paradox.

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss

The article is finished, please reprimand.

 

Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise)

Abstract

The discussion on the values of redshift, as well as blueshift, is based on a large increase in new evidence that in the whole volume of Universe there are gravitationally-bound objects (galaxies, clusters and superclusters of galaxies) „Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes we have now observed 72 collisions between galaxy clusters, including both ‘major’ and ‘minor’ mergers” [1].

That adds to a great diversity of galactic movement directions and their diverse appearances to an observer.

The accent here is at the point of "clearing the early Universe" and asks questions about how these types of radiation could be measured if all galaxies were created in the early stages of Universe, which had started emitting these types of radiation. At the same time, some questions are asked about

With a redshift of 5.47, (Q0906 + 6930)  light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). [2] i.e., why the actual measured values of redshift are not applied.  

1. Introduction

The article deals with the newest measured data for the most distant galaxies with a significant redshift, for which there are two values, co-moving distance - light travel distance.

A special attention is dedicated to the difference between a value of redshift and the transformation into a distance below 13,8 Gly, distance 28.85 Gly (8.85 Gpc) (co-moving);  12.9 Gly (4.0 Gpc) (light travel distance ULAS J1120+0641).

As a starting point of this discussion I use the mainstream claims that the first types of radiation originated  320.000 – 380.000 years after a hypothetical beginning or creation of Universe and the spreading speed of Universe is always lower than the spreading speed of radiation (waves). 

The method of verification is the usage of a sequence of relations with mainstream evidence in a single place to eliminate the possibility of manipulation with data and conclusions. To speed up the release of this article, I will use tables and photographies already published in my articles [3], [4], [5], [6] and used in discussing other topics.

2. Values of blueshift and redshift presentation

For already some time science faces the problem of redshift value, which is determined very differently at the same distances; also, for the same value of redshift (z) there are very different distances and the speeds of withdrawal from (and approaching to) an observer, in the whole volume of Universe. Nowadays, as well as in the early stages of discovering new galaxies, the existence of blueshift has been ascribed and related only to the local group.

There is a similar quantity of galaxies with redshift and blueshift in our local group. 

Table 1. Our Local Galaxy Group (Part)

galaxies, local groups

Redshift km/s

Blueshift km/s

Sextans B (4.44 ± 0.23 Mly)  

300 ± 0

 

Sextans A

324 ± 2

 

NGC 3109

403 ± 1

 

Tucana Dwarf

130 ± ?

 

Leo I

285 ± 2

 

NGC 6822 

 

-57 ± 2

Andromeda Galaxy

 

-301 ± 1

Leo II (about 690,000 ly) 

79 ± 1

 

Phoenix Dwarf

60 ± 30

 

SagDIG

 

-79 ± 1

Aquarius Dwarf

 

-141 ± 2

Wolf–Lundmark–Melotte

 

-122 ± 2

Pisces Dwarf 

 

-287 ± 0

Antlia Dwarf

362 ± 0 

 

Leo A

0.000067

 

Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal 

 

-354 ± 3 

IC 10

 

-348 ± 1

NGC 185

 

-202 ± 3

Canes Venatici I

~  31

 

Andromeda III

 

-351 ± 9

Andromeda II

 

-188 ± 3

Triangulum Galaxy

 

-179 ± 3

Messier 110

 

-241 ± 3

NGC 147 (2.53 ± 0.11 Mly)

 

-193 ± 3

Small Magellanic Cloud

0.000527

 

M32

 

-200 ± 6

NGC 205

 

-241 ± 3

IC 1613

 

-234 ± 1

Carina Dwarf

230 ± 60

 

Sextans Dwarf

224 ± 2

 

Ursa Minor Dwarf (200 ± 30 kly)

 

-247 ± 1

Draco Dwarf

 

-292 ± 21

Cassiopeia Dwarf

 

-307 ± 2

Ursa Major II Dwarf

 

- 116 

Leo IV

130

 

Leo V ( 585 kly)

173

 

Leo T

 

-60

Bootes II

 

-120

Pegasus Dwarf

 

-183 ± 0

Sculptor Dwarf

110 ± 1

 

Etc.

 

 

Table 1. Our Local Galaxy Group (Part) with redshift and blue shift km/s [3]

As technology advances and the quantity of the observed galaxies increases, many galaxies with blueshift (i.e., those that approach to an observer) outside our local group were discovered. All those galaxies that are gravitationally-bound (large and small mergers, the collision of galaxies – interactive galaxies) are to be added to those galaxies having spectral blueshift. Although we, the observers, notice their more or less expressed redshift, all of these galaxies exclusively experience blueshift between each other, due to approaching or collision. Recent research have discovered 200.000,0 galaxies in the interaction. [7]

Table 2. a part of galaxies with blueshift

Designation

VLG… blue shift

Designation

VLG… blue shift

IC3036  

−126

NGC4419

−383

IC3044

−298

VCC997

−360

VCC087

−267

KDG132

−100

NGC4192

−246

NGC4438

−43

NGC4212

−199

SDSS

−0

VCC181

−267

VCC1129

−105

VCC200

−98

VCC1163

−564

A224385

−204

VCC1175

−118

IC3094

−275

VCC1198

−470

VCC237

−423

IC3416

−198

IC3105

−284

VCC1239

−672

VCC322

−323

VCC1264

−539

VCC334

−350

IC3435

−150

VCC501

−224

VCC1314

−37

IC3224

−100

IC3445

−470

VCC628

−540

IC3471

−235

VCC636

−113

IC3476

−280

IC3258

−593

IC3492

−604

IC3303

−427

IC3548

−37

VCC788

−3

VCC1682

−66

VCC802

−318

NGC4569

−345

IC3311

−287

UGC7795

−78

VCC810

−470

VCC1750

−258

VCC815

−866

VCC1761

−269

VCC846

−845

KDG172

−42

NGC4396

−215

VCC1812

−351

VCC877

−212

VCC1860

−124

NGC4406

−374

IC3658

−69

VCC892

−784

UGC7857

−7

NGC4413

−16

VCC1909

−16

VCC928

−395

IC0810

−188

IC3355

−126

VCC2028

−52

VCC953

−563

 

Table 2. a part of galaxies with blueshift (and negative speeds) at the distance of about 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc). [8]

At the distances above 70 Mly the values of (mostly) blueshift or approaching (the galaxies seen from Earth) are annihilated, also due to the increase in distance, which is the reason to decrease the intensity (force) of waves (radiation). Above 70 Mly our instruments read redshift, regardless of approaching or withdrawing of an object from an observer. However, at the distances above 70 Mly and below them

(„NGC 1.600 is 149,3 Kly away and its speed is 4.681 km/s, 
NGC 7320c is 35 Mly away and with the speed of (a red shift) 5.985 ± 9,
NGC 5010 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  2.975 ± 27, and the galaxy
NGC 280 that is 469 Mly away has the speed of distancing of  3.878!

At the distance of 52 ± 3 (M86) there is a blue shift (-244 ± 5 km/s)  that is also present with the galaxy M90 at the distance of 58.7 ± 2.8 (−282 ± 4), while the other galaxies at the same distance (Messier 61, NGC 4216 , Messier 60, NGC 4526, Messier 99 (except NGC 4419 -0,0009 (-342)) are with a positive sign and completely different speeds.“ [3])

we can read different values of redshift for the same distances or the same redshift value for the galaxies that have very different distances.

Table 3. Red shift /distance

 

Galaxy, Cluster galaxy, Supercluster

Red shift (z)

Distance M ly

1

Leo_Cluster

0,022

368,6

2

ARP 87

0,023726

330

3

Abell 2152

0,041

551

4

Hydra_Cluster

0,0548

 

190,1

1

Abell 671

0,0502

600

2

Abell 1060

0,0548

190,1

3

Abell_1991

0,0587

812

4

Corona Borealis Supercluster

0,07

946

5

Laniakea Supercluster

0,0708

250

6

Abell 2029

0,0767

 

1 063

1

Abell 383

0,1871

2 485

2

Abell 520

0,2

2 645

3

Abell_222(3)

0,211

 

2 400

1

Saraswati Supercluster

0,28

4 000

2

Bullet Cluster

0,296

3 700

3

Abell 2744

0,308

3 982

4

CID-42

0,359

 

3 900

1

Abell_370

0,375

4 775

2

3C_295

0,464

4 600

3

Musket Ball Cluster

0,53

700

4

Abell 754

0,542

 

760

1

MACS J0025.4-1222

0,586

6 070

2

Phoenix Cluster

0,597

5 700

3

RX J1131-1231

0,658

6 050

4

ACT-CL J0102-4915

0,87

 

4 000

1

Lynx Supercluster

1,26, 1,27

12 000

2

Twin Quasar

1,413

8 700

3

XMMXCS_2215-1738

1,45

10 000

4

Einstein Cross

1,695

8 000

5

TON 618

2,219

10 400

6

EQ J100054+023435

4,547

12 200

7

Q0906 + 6930

5,47

12 300

 

1

z8 GND 5296

7,5078 ± 0,0004

13 100

2

A2744 YD4

8,38

13 200

3

UDFy-38135539

8,6

13 100

4

GRB 090429B

9,4

13 140

5

Abell 1835 IR1916

10,0

13 200

Table 3. As redshift increases, the distance of the objects decreases, increases (faster or slower than "expected") or remains similar. [5]

It is very well known in science that the intensity of radiation decreases due to the increase of distance (which is obvious when at night we look at the stars with bare eyes).

„The pressure of the electromagnetic radiation, measured in µPa (µN/m² and N/km²), is as follows: 915, on the distance of 0.10 AU (astronomical units) away from Sun; 43.3 on Mercury; 9.15 on Earth; 0.34 on Jupiter. Or, measured in pound-force per square miles (lbf/mi²): 526, 0.10 AU away from Sun; 24.9 on Mercury: 5.26 on Earth; 0.19  on Jupiter. 

The average intensity of the solar radiation, in W/ m², is as follows: 9 116.4 on Mercury; 1 366.1 on Earth; 50.5 on Jupiter; 0.878 on Pluto. Wikipedia

„The interaction of space and radiation directly influences the temperature of an object. On the following objects' surfaces it is as follows: 440°K on Mercury; 288°K on Earth; 152 on Jupiter16. The space around the objects has the same decreasing curve starting from the Sun towards the end of the system. The same goes for the dark side of the objects. The lowest temperature on Mercury is 100°K, on Uranus 49°K, on Pluto 28°K, in the Oort cloud 4°K. During observation, a compensation for the atmospheric influence and the interior temperature of an object needs to be taken into consideration, as these are the factors of interference when comparative data are being acquired.“ [9]

Although this is common knowledge, astronomers do not apply it in determining the real distance of objects that are more or less distant in the volume of Universe and the increase of redshift is related only to the increase of distance (so-called speed of galaxies' withdrawal from an observer). The evidence mentioned above, which encompass the whole – reachable with modern instruments – volume of Universe, point out that the increase of redshift is directly related to the decrease of the measured intensity of incoming waves and its value is corrected, depending on whether an object withdraws or approaches an observer. If these two values are applied, then the confusion that was created when applying only the increase of speed with the objects withdrawing further from us disappears.

It has to be stated clearly that, due to this concept, we have neither realistic values of positioning the distances of objects nor the observed volume of Universe. The further the distance, the weaker are the radiation, while redshift increases and is not limited to predetermined fixed constructions that do not allow a realistic overview of Universe.

3. Comoving distance- light travel distance

We are going to check the reality of these parameters, which are strictly imposed to scientists, from the angle of very limiting factors, presented nowadays by the scientific mainstream, and convince ourselves in credibility of their application and the validity of results.

If all theories are excluded, picture 1 should approximately present real values of measurement of objects in Universe (as well as those objects that are going to be discovered in near future, due to the ongoing progress of technology).

Figure 1. Universe with the points from 1-4 and its maximum possible diameter of 13,8 Gly

Comoving distance

Figure 1. Universe with the points from 1-4 and its maximum possible diameter of 13,8 Gly

 

Mainstream science claims that 13,8 Gly is a total value of Universe, regardless of simultaneous evidence (claims)

„The proper distance for a redshift of 8.2 would be about 9.2 Gpc, or about 30 billion light years.“

 With a redshift of 5.47,[1][2] light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc) and data from published measurements: [10]

RD1

With a redshift of 5.34, light from this galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.5 billion years to reach us. But since this galaxy is receding from Earth, the present comoving distance is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years.

ULAS J1120+0641
(at a comoving distance of 28.85 billion light-years) was the first quasar discovered beyond a redshift of 7.

UDFj-39546284
Subsequently it was reported (December 2012) to possibly be at a record-breaking redshift z = 11.9 using Hubble and Spitzer telescope data, including Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF).
UDFy-38135539
The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years).

There are a number of different distance measures in cosmology, and both "light travel distance" and "luminosity distance" are different from the comoving distance or "proper distance" generally used in defining the size of the observable universe[16][17] (comoving distance and proper distance are defined to be equal at the present cosmological time, so they can be used interchangeably when talking about the distance to an object at present, but proper distance increases with time due to the expansion of the universe, and is the distance used in Hubble's law.
EGS-zs8-1
The galaxy has a comoving distance (light travel distance multiplied by the Hubble constant, caused by the metric expansion of space) of about 30 billion light years from Earth.
Z8 GND 5296
Due to the expansion of the universe, this position is now at about 30 billion light-years (9.2 Gpc) (comoving distance) from Earth.
Q0906 + 6930
But since this galaxy is receding from Earth at an estimated rate of 285,803 km/s[1] (the speed of light is 299,792 km/s), the present (co-moving) distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc).
GN-108036
The redshift was z = 7.2, meaning the light of the galaxy took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth and therefore its formation dates back to 750 million years after the Big Bang . Redshift z=7.213.

The existence of redshift above the value (z) 5 pointed out that if (z) continues to grow, the concept of mainstream – 13,8 Gly (Big Bang) – is going to fall apart. Nowadays, the instruments register the value (z) of 11,9. When there is an overwhelming resistence from reactionary institutions and scientists, despite the newest measurements, then there appear unbelievable new ideas that do not belong to physics nor they represent science. The theme that is discussed here is one of them.

Figure 2. The Expanding Universe

Comoving distance 

Figure 2. The Expanding Universe – history (my compilation)

If there was a Big Bang, all the waves from that time should be approaching from a single direction, as shown in the figure 2. If radiation started for the first time 320 000 – 380 000

years after the explosion, during the so-called period of clearing the compact thick mass, then that radiation is impossible to measure today, no matter what mathemathical method may be used in the process. The reason to it is that all galaxies are created inside that mass that started emitting radiation. Since mainstram science also disagrees with the idea that the expansion of Universe or matter movement was faster than the spreading speed of waves in the space (which is still dubbed vacuum by the same mainstream), it can be seen that so-called measurements from that time are impossible to have been done.

Figure 3. The Early Universe The Early Universe

Figure 3. The Early Universe 320,000-380,000 years after the Big Bang, points 1-4 of Milky Way

 

We measure the objects, the age of which is estimated by mainstream to be withdrawn into past approximately as far as to the so-called early Universe, when the emission of radiation started. Points 1-4 in the so-called early Universe are some of the positions where our galaxy originated (Milky Way: 13.8 ± 4 billion years is age for BD +17° 3248; about 13.5 billion-years-old, 2MASS J18082002-5104378 B ..).

Within the most distant galaxies must be objects of similar age. Milky Way has a redshift (z) 0, the outermost galaxies have a redshift (z) 11.

Early Universe is also related to a small diameter, because the expansion has been taking place during all 13,8 Gly, due to which a contemporary volume of Universe should be created. If it was true that this small diameter of Universe started emitting radiation, besides the need for it to arrive from a single direction, it would have been obvious that this radiation left so-called early Universe with a diameter of only four times the diameter of our galaxy (under the condition that the expansion had been taking place at the speed of light). The universe has about 100 billion galaxies.

The deepest radiation of the early Universe needed to travel through only  200.000 ly in order to leave our Universe. The other problem is that the mainstream claims that Universe spreads ever faster, because the most distant galaxies show the most important redshift.

However, it is forgotten here that the mainstream also claims the most distant galaxies are the oldest galaxies.

GN-108036 The redshift was z = 7.2, meaning the light of the galaxy took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth and therefore its formation dates back to 750 million years after the Big Bang Redshift z=7.213.

GN-z11 ≈32 billion ly (9.8 billion pc) (present proper distance); ≈13.4 billion ly (4.1 billion pc) (light-travel distance); Helio radial velocity 295.050 ± 119.917 km / s

M33

-0,000607  (z)

2,38-3,07  Mly distance

-179± 3 km/s

M64

0,001361   (z)

24± 7  Mly

408±4  km/s

CID-42 

0,359    (z)

3,9  Gly

89.302 km/s

MS 1054-03

0,8321   (z)

6,757 Gly

246.759  km/s

So, what is correct here: that the most distant galaxies withdraw at the fastest speed, or that the oldest galaxies had been withdrawing at the fastest speed?

If the most distant galaxies are at the same time the oldest, then the fastest were the galaxies in the far past, so-called protogalaxies – and that is opposite to the claim that Universe spreads ever faster.

The next table shows that radiation incoming from the distances of more than  

12 Gly from all directions of the volume of Universe are measured.

Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe

 

Galaxy

Right ascension

Declination

Red shift

Distance G ly

1

HCM-6A

02h 39m 54.7s

−01° 33′ 32″

6,56

12,8

2

SXDF-NB1006-2

02h 18m 56.5s

−05° 19′ 58.9″

7,215

13,07

3

TN J0924-2201

09 h  24 m  19,92 s

-22 ° 01 '41,5 "

5,19

12,523

4

UDFy-38135539

03h 32m 38.13s

−27° 45′ 53.9″

8,6

13,1

5

A2744 YD4

00h 14m 24.927s

−30° 22′ 56.15″

8,38

13,2

6

BDF-3299

22h 28m 12.26s

−35° 09′ 59.4″

7,109

13,05

7

SSA22−HCM1

22h 17m 39.69s

+00° 13′ 48.6″

5,47

12,7

8

EQ J100054+023435

10h 00m 54.52s

+2° 34′ 35.17″

4,547

12,2

9

ULAS J1120+0641

11h 20m 01.48s

+06° 41′ 24.3″

7,085

13,05

10

ULAS J1342 + 0928 

13h 42m 08.10s

+13h 42m 08.10s

7,54

13,1

11

GRB 090423

09h 55m 33.08s

+18° 08′ 58.9″

8,2

13

12

IOK-1

13h 23m 59.8s

+27° 24′ 56″

6,96

12,88

13

A1703 zD6

13 h 15 m 01.0 s

+51° 50 04

7,054

13,04

14

Q0906 + 6930

09h 06m 30.75s

+69° 30′ 30.8″

5,47

12,3

15

MACS0647-JD

06h 47m 55.73s

+70° 14′ 35.8″

10,7

13,3

Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe distance 12,2 -13,3 G ly [6]

The table shows galaxies from 00h 14m 24.927s to 22h 28m 12.26 s equatorial and −35° 09′ 59.4″ to +70° 14′ 35.8″ to the north/south from the celestial equator. Namely the measurements of galactic distances, advocated by the mainstream, indicate that similar distances are measured in all directions. These measurements represent the volume of Universe as being opposite to their claims of total maximum age of Universe of 13,8 Gly. The forms of radiation (measured recently) above 12 Gly approach from all parts of the volume. 

Now, from the table that recalculates real distances above 5 (z) and less into Big Bang constructs, it is again obvious that the diameter of Universe is twice as big as 13,8 Gly. When "real" values of  correct interpretation of redshift are included 

(With a redshift of 5.47,[1][2] (Q0906 + 6930) light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). (Wikipedia)

there is another problem. 12,3 billion light-years multiplied with 2 makes 24,6 billion light-years, which is by 1,4 Gly less, if a limiting condition that radiation and expansion have been moving at the same speed is taken into consideration. The same difference continues to grow when (z) grows:

ULAS J1120+0641 Redshift 7.085±0.003[1]; distance 28.85 Gly (8.85 Gpc) (co-moving[2];  12.9 Gly (4.0 Gpc) (light travel distance), the difference is 3,05,

UDFy-38135539 (z) 8,6; The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs[13] (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years), the difference is 270 Gly.

 Here, the data should also be included, that for dist. 2.4 Gly we measure red shift (z) 0,211 (Abell_222(3); za dist. 12,0 Gly we measure (z) 1,26, 1,27 (Lynx Supercluster) and other data from Table 3.

The galaxy  GN-z11  dist. 13,39 Gly has (z) 11,09  and it has a more significant redshift by 10,63 (4) than  Lynx Supercluster (1,26(7) 12.9 billion light years) but the distance is larger only by 0,49 Gly.

For the distance of 0,7 Gly Musket Ball Cluster there is a value of 0,53 (z), while the difference here is 10,63 Gly. The difference of (z) 10,63 matches Abell 1835 IR1916  which has (z) 10 and recommended age (distance) of 13,2 Gly. 

Let us repeat that:

„The proper distance for a redshift of 8.2 would be about 9.2 Gpc, or about 30 billion light years.“  With a redshift of 5.47, (Q0906 + 6930)  light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). [10]

The rotation of Universe (instead of expansion) that is based on the similar principles as the rotation of clusters of galaxies or stars, is also unable to accept such confused data, because there are no very significant deviations by the volume of cluster. The internal galaxies move slower than the external ones, but make a single orbital cycle approximately at the same time. Under these conditions the measured value of redshift (z) and current distance between the measured objects are approximately the same. In the case Universe would be rotating, its diameter is presented in the table 4 and if the definition of redshift value, according to the mainstream, is used, the diameter goes above  25 Gly.

When including the decrease of wave intensity (with the increase of speed, currently used by the mainstream) as a dominant value in determining distances of objects in Universe, it would completely remove the existence of two values of interpreting distance or Comoving distance- light travel distance. Also, the obstacles to calculate real values of redshift would be gone. Very large quantity of objects (measured recently) will be the part of the volume of our Universe, a part of them will be waves incoming from the neighboring universes (our local group of universes).

„By applying the analogy of the ascending sequence of events, the more we are distanced from the source of radiation, the lower are the temperatures. Between the multi-universes, they are a bit closer to the absolute zero. The temperatures decrease as the wholes grow. An endlessly large volumetric belt of energy is expanding after the last ascending whole and the temperature there is absolute zero.

By the analogy, inside this belt there is an endless quantity of the wholes, similar to that one, but it is very likely that the whole with the absolute zero temperature in it could be the outer and the last whole in the hierarchy that goes further into the 3-D infinity (at least the infinity as humankind understands it).[11]  

4. Conclusion

With the transited distance, waves lose their intensity that is registered by the increasing redshift (Mean Solar Irradiance (W/m2) on Mercury is 9.116,4, Earth  1.366,1, Jupiter 50,5, na Pluto 0,878 [3]).

Confronting the evidence, that in recent time there are 200 000 of merging or colliding galaxies and have blueshift among themselves, some people are persistent in continuing that the increase of the galactic speed exclusively affects the value of redshift. A significant sum of evidence states there is also a redshift in those galaxies that are approaching to an observer (but only those that are further than 70 Mly away, while those that are closer than that register a blueshift).

By continuing to use such a platform, unbelievable fabrications occur, which have no place in physics. They distort real measurements and instead of science they try to incorporate into physics some "values" that do not belong to it.

Measurements should be presented exclusively within realistic values and there is no need for subsequent embellishments to preserve such structures that exceed the limits of physics.

It is necessary to determine real values of the influence of the radiation intensity weakening  (with a constant and slow increase of speed of the distant galaxies in their orbits inside Universe) within the redshift value. The clusters of galaxies have rotations that are different from zero and due to their constant orbital rotation it seems to an observer that galaxies have very different directions of movement. Generally, they travel in the orbit of their cluster, as a dot on a planet, a star that rotates together with its planet inside their galaxy, which rotates further in its cluster and that cluster within its supercluster and finally all together rotate in Universe.

________________________________________________________________

 [1]. https://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1506a.pdf  2015. „The non-gravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters“ David   Harvey1,2 , Richard Massey3 , Thomas Kitching4 , Andy Taylor2 , Eric Tittley2

[2]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q0906%2B6930#Distance_measurements "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database" Results for 0901+6942. Retrieved 2010-04-20.

[3]. http://www.globalscientificjournal.com/researchpaper/Demolition-hubbles-law-big-bang-the-basis-of-modern-and-ecclesiastical-cosmology.pdf Volume 6, Issue 3, March 2018, GSJ© 2018 www.globalscientificjournal.com Weitter Duckss

[4].http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/journal/paperinfo?journalid=301&doi=10.11648/j.ajaa.20180603.13   American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Paper Number: 3011059 
Paper Title: How are the spiral and other types of galaxies formed? Nov. 2018. W.Duckss

[5]. https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/474 Vol 1, No 4 (2019), The Processes of Violent Disintegration and Natural Creation of Matter in the Universe, Weitter Duckss, Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal

[6]. https://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V82019021908.pdf Effects of Rotation Arund the Axis on the Stars, Galaxy and Rotation of Universe, Weitter Duckss, Volume 8 – February 2019

[7]. https://phys.org/news/2019-10-record-number-galaxies-galaxy-mergers-ignite.html 21. lis 2019. - Record-number of over 200,000 galaxies confirm: galaxy mergers ignite star bursts Two galaxies in the process of merging. Credit: NASA/ESA/

[8]. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.750.3348&rep=rep1&type=pdf ID Karachentsev, 9. srp 2010. - 2 List of blueshifted galaxies in Virgo. According to the Virgo ... Table 1. List of Virgo cluster galaxies with negative radial velocities. Designation.

[9]. http://www.ijser.org/onlineResearchPaperViewer.aspx?The-observation-process-in-the-universe-through-the-database.pdf  International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016 408, The observation process in the universe through the database, Slavko Sedic (W.Duckss)

[10]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observable_universe#Most_distant_objects  Meszaros, Attila; et al. (2009). "Impact on cosmology of the celestial anisotropy of the short gamma-ray bursts". Baltic Astronomy18: 293–296. arXiv:1005.1558. Bibcode:2009BaltA..18..293M

[11]. https://www.svemir-ipaksevrti.com/the-Universe-rotating.html#15b 2013/14. Why is the universe cold? W. Duckss

 

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Susanc241

All that just to argue the point of whether when a tree falls in the forest devoid of animal life, does it make a sound?  Yes, it does disturb the air in the act of falling and hitting the ground but you need a receiver (ears/microphone) to detect that disturbance.  As with light - nothing to see the light?  It is still there but you need a receiver to detect it (eyes/camera lens).  Very simplistic, I know, but perhaps it needs an overly simplistic explanation in this case? :whistle:

  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss

In fact, this is not the topic "Comoving distance - light travel distance". Discussions about light were in the topics of:

 

etc.

You are trying to prove (I think) why light is seen on the surface of the moon and why it is not visible just above the surface.

It's either light or it's not.

Probably you want to say that the light loves to play hide and seek?

Do I need a :whistle:?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Wes83
20 hours ago, Weitter Duckss said:

 

You are trying to prove (I think) why light is seen on the surface of the moon and why it is not visible just above the surface.

It's either light or it's not.

Probably you want to say that the light loves to play hide and seek?

Do I need a :whistle:?

If light has nothing to interact with it isn’t visible.

i thought your problem was more along the lines of how does light travel so far so insanely fast, and beyond that it seems you feel that we are measuring these stuffs incorrectly?

i suggest you find someone who you can work with to understand what you are trying to say and can present the information succinctly and with eloquence.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Cookie Monster

@Weitter Duckss

Using our most powerful telescopes we can currently view galaxies as far out as 14 billion light years. Even earlier is impossible because there are no galaxies as such, just a massive blob of mess. Amongst our findings are galaxies, and some stars within galaxies, that are clearly moving faster than the speed of light.

When it comes to explaining how that is possible there are a range of theories:

Hyper- Inflation: During the early universe the speed of light was different due to the period of hyper inflation following the Big Bang.

Hidden-Sector Physics: Our understanding of gravity is wrong, and this is supported by our inability to detect a gravity particle to explain why the force exists. Either that or there are other unknown physics at work.

Measurement Error: There must be something wrong with our models used to determine how fast a distance object is moving causing inaccurate results.

In quantum mechanics there are mechanisms which allow an object to get from A to B faster than light. Such as in quantum tunnelling experiments. So I introduce my own possible theory. Just as atoms are so small that we need a very powerful microscope it gain information on them, a distance star or galaxy is so far way it requires a very powerful telescope to gain any information on them. That means distance objects are behaving quantum mechanically while we arent looking with our very powerful telescopes.

  • Like 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss

@Wes83 

First conclude one, then again about the old one.

There is no speed of light into space because there is complete darkness. Light does not travel from the surface of the moon because there is no light just above the surface. The concept and range of light exists only within the atmosphere, on the surface of the body or in a large set of particles (nebulae).

Just outside the atmosphere of the sun is complete darkness, which means that light does not originate from the sun.

And God creates light, which is a mix of the collision of waves with visible matter. Amen. No further.

@RabidMongoose

Everything is fine with gravity (attractive forces) and other laws of physics. There is only a problem in the fabrications which are beyond the knowledge and the laws of physics. These fictions are marketed by dinosaur scientists who do not keep up with the new evidence.

The evil is that they are hampering the entire world of science development.

We must wait for their extinction and that the money for science is taken up by progressive currents, that will present evidence instead of biblical fabrications (embedded in science).

From article:

If there was a Big Bang, all the waves from that time should be approaching from a single direction, as shown in the figure 2. If radiation started for the first time 320 000 – 380 000 years after the explosion, during the so-called period of clearing the compact thick mass, then that radiation is impossible to measure today, no matter what mathemathical method may be used in the process. The reason to it is that all galaxies are created inside that mass that started emitting radiation. Since mainstram science also disagrees with the idea that the expansion of Universe or matter movement was faster than the spreading speed of waves in the space (which is still dubbed vacuum by the same mainstream), it can be seen that so-called measurements from that time are impossible to have been done.

Figure 3. The Early Universe The Early Universe

Figure 3. The Early Universe 320,000-380,000 years after the Big Bang, points 1-4 of Milky Way

 

We measure the objects, the age of which is estimated by mainstream to be withdrawn into past approximately as far as to the so-called early Universe, when the emission of radiation started. Points 1-4 in the so-called early Universe are some of the positions where our galaxy originated (Milky Way: 13.8 ± 4 billion years is age for BD +17° 3248; about 13.5 billion-years-old, 2MASS J18082002-5104378 B ..).

Within the most distant galaxies must be objects of similar age. Milky Way has a redshift (z) 0, the outermost galaxies have a redshift (z) 11.

Early Universe is also related to a small diameter, because the expansion has been taking place during all 13,8 Gly, due to which a contemporary volume of Universe should be created. If it was true that this small diameter of Universe started emitting radiation, besides the need for it to arrive from a single direction, it would have been obvious that this radiation left so-called early Universe with a diameter of only four times the diameter of our galaxy (under the condition that the expansion had been taking place at the speed of light). The universe has about 100 billion galaxies.

The deepest radiation of the early Universe needed to travel through only  200.000 ly in order to leave our Universe. The other problem is that the mainstream claims that Universe spreads ever faster, because the most distant galaxies show the most important redshift.

However, it is forgotten here that the mainstream also claims the most distant galaxies are the oldest galaxies.

GN-108036 The redshift was z = 7.2, meaning the light of the galaxy took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth and therefore its formation dates back to 750 million years after the Big Bang Redshift z=7.213.

GN-z11 ≈32 billion ly (9.8 billion pc) (present proper distance); ≈13.4 billion ly (4.1 billion pc) (light-travel distance); Helio radial velocity 295.050 ± 119.917 km / s

M33

-0,000607  (z)

2,38-3,07  Mly distance

-179± 3 km/s

M64

0,001361   (z)

24± 7  Mly

408±4  km/s

CID-42 

0,359    (z)

3,9  Gly

89.302 km/s

MS 1054-03

0,8321   (z)

6,757 Gly

246.759  km/s

So, what is correct here: that the most distant galaxies withdraw at the fastest speed, or that the oldest galaxies had been withdrawing at the fastest speed?

If the most distant galaxies are at the same time the oldest, then the fastest were the galaxies in the far past, so-called protogalaxies – and that is opposite to the claim that Universe spreads ever faster.

The next table shows that radiation incoming from the distances of more than   12 Gly from all directions of the volume of Universe are measured.

Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe

 

Galaxy

Right ascension

Declination

Red shift

Distance G ly

1

HCM-6A

02h 39m 54.7s

−01° 33′ 32″

6,56

12,8

2

SXDF-NB1006-2

02h 18m 56.5s

−05° 19′ 58.9″

7,215

13,07

3

TN J0924-2201

09 h  24 m  19,92 s

-22 ° 01 '41,5 "

5,19

12,523

4

UDFy-38135539

03h 32m 38.13s

−27° 45′ 53.9″

8,6

13,1

5

A2744 YD4

00h 14m 24.927s

−30° 22′ 56.15″

8,38

13,2

6

BDF-3299

22h 28m 12.26s

−35° 09′ 59.4″

7,109

13,05

7

SSA22−HCM1

22h 17m 39.69s

+00° 13′ 48.6″

5,47

12,7

8

EQ J100054+023435

10h 00m 54.52s

+2° 34′ 35.17″

4,547

12,2

9

ULAS J1120+0641

11h 20m 01.48s

+06° 41′ 24.3″

7,085

13,05

10

ULAS J1342 + 0928 

13h 42m 08.10s

+13h 42m 08.10s

7,54

13,1

11

GRB 090423

09h 55m 33.08s

+18° 08′ 58.9″

8,2

13

12

IOK-1

13h 23m 59.8s

+27° 24′ 56″

6,96

12,88

13

A1703 zD6

13 h 15 m 01.0 s

+51° 50 04

7,054

13,04

14

Q0906 + 6930

09h 06m 30.75s

+69° 30′ 30.8″

5,47

12,3

15

MACS0647-JD

06h 47m 55.73s

+70° 14′ 35.8″

10,7

13,3

Table 4. the direction of the farthest galaxies within the Universe distance 12,2 -13,3 G ly [6]

The table shows galaxies from 00h 14m 24.927s to 22h 28m 12.26 s equatorial and −35° 09′ 59.4″ to +70° 14′ 35.8″ to the north/south from the celestial equator. Namely the measurements of galactic distances, advocated by the mainstream, indicate that similar distances are measured in all directions. These measurements represent the volume of Universe as being opposite to their claims of total maximum age of Universe of 13,8 Gly. The forms of radiation (measured recently) above 12 Gly approach from all parts of the volume. 

Now, from the table that recalculates real distances above 5 (z) and less into Big Bang constructs, it is again obvious that the diameter of Universe is twice as big as 13,8 Gly. When "real" values of  correct interpretation of redshift are included 

(With a redshift of 5.47,[1][2] (Q0906 + 6930) light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). (Wikipedia)

there is another problem. 12,3 billion light-years multiplied with 2 makes 24,6 billion light-years, which is by 1,4 Gly less, if a limiting condition that radiation and expansion have been moving at the same speed is taken into consideration. The same difference continues to grow when (z) grows:

ULAS J1120+0641 Redshift 7.085±0.003[1]; distance 28.85 Gly (8.85 Gpc) (co-moving[2];  12.9 Gly (4.0 Gpc) (light travel distance), the difference is 3,05,

UDFy-38135539 (z) 8,6; The light travel distance of the light that we observe from UDFy-38135539 (HUF.YD3) is more than 4 billion parsecs[13] (13.1 billion light years), and it has a luminosity distance of 86.9 billion parsecs (about 283 billion light years), the difference is 270 Gly.

 Here, the data should also be included, that for dist. 2.4 Gly we measure red shift (z) 0,211 (Abell_222(3); za dist. 12,0 Gly we measure (z) 1,26, 1,27 (Lynx Supercluster) and other data from Table 3.

The galaxy  GN-z11  dist. 13,39 Gly has (z) 11,09  and it has a more significant redshift by 10,63 (4) than  Lynx Supercluster (1,26(7) 12.9 billion light years) but the distance is larger only by 0,49 Gly.

For the distance of 0,7 Gly Musket Ball Cluster there is a value of 0,53 (z), while the difference here is 10,63 Gly. The difference of (z) 10,63 matches Abell 1835 IR1916  which has (z) 10 and recommended age (distance) of 13,2 Gly. 

Let us repeat that:

„The proper distance for a redshift of 8.2 would be about 9.2 Gpc, or about 30 billion light years.“  With a redshift of 5.47, (Q0906 + 6930)  light from this active galaxy is estimated to have taken around 12.3 billion light-years to reach us.. distance to this galaxy is estimated to be around 26 billion light-years (7961 Mpc). [10]

The rotation of Universe (instead of expansion) that is based on the similar principles as the rotation of clusters of galaxies or stars, is also unable to accept such confused data, because there are no very significant deviations by the volume of cluster. The internal galaxies move slower than the external ones, but make a single orbital cycle approximately at the same time. Under these conditions the measured value of redshift (z) and current distance between the measured objects are approximately the same. In the case Universe would be rotating, its diameter is presented in the table 4 and if the definition of redshift value, according to the mainstream, is used, the diameter goes above  25 Gly.

When including the decrease of wave intensity (with the increase of speed, currently used by the mainstream) as a dominant value in determining distances of objects in Universe, it would completely remove the existence of two values of interpreting distance or Comoving distance- light travel distance. Also, the obstacles to calculate real values of redshift would be gone. Very large quantity of objects (measured recently) will be the part of the volume of our Universe, a part of them will be waves incoming from the neighboring universes (our local group of universes).

„By applying the analogy of the ascending sequence of events, the more we are distanced from the source of radiation, the lower are the temperatures. Between the multi-universes, they are a bit closer to the absolute zero. The temperatures decrease as the wholes grow. An endlessly large volumetric belt of energy is expanding after the last ascending whole and the temperature there is absolute zero.

By the analogy, inside this belt there is an endless quantity of the wholes, similar to that one, but it is very likely that the whole with the absolute zero temperature in it could be the outer and the last whole in the hierarchy that goes further into the 3-D infinity (at least the infinity as humankind understands it). [11] "

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Weitter Duckss

https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/704

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33258/birex.v2i1.704

Comoving Distance- Light Travel Distance (Treatise)

Weitter Duckss

https://bircu-journal.com/index.php/birex/article/view/704/pdf PDF

submit

Please submit your articles to these emails below!
birex.journal@gmail.com or
birex.journal.qa@gmail.com

BIRCU_publisher_wa_final802.jpg

Sponsoring Membership Partners

BirLE in doi crossref

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
toast
On 11/24/2019 at 9:06 PM, Weitter Duckss said:

All contents on a site which offer "7 Ghost-Hunting Tools Recommended by Paranormal Investigators" should be ignored on principle.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now

  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    No registered users viewing this page.