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Amarna, Before and After


Wistman

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I wonder what the majority view is, here and in the wider world, of where the court moved to after leaving Amarna. It had initially moved from Malkata at Thebes to Amarna, so would they have moved back there initially, or moved directly to Memphis, unused as the capital for decades by then. I wonder what bearing this may have had on the movement of the royal mummies. Clearly Tutankhamun directs others to move his dead family members, though in what seem difficult times, maybe he, or whoever was acting for him, Ay ? would have kept a close eye on this. Could the opportunity have been taken to move other members of the family, for instance no known mummy or tomb for crown prince Thutmose has ever been found, his burial presumed to be at Saqqara, but with no evidence. The sarcophagus of his cat and the model funeral bier were both found by the site of the Temple of Ptah at Mit Rahina, not across the road in the Sakkara necropolis, so likely items kept in storage in the temple until it was demolished, perhaps in early Christian times.

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Posted (edited)
11 hours ago, Wepwawet said:

I wonder what the majority view is, here and in the wider world, of where the court moved to after leaving Amarna. It had initially moved from Malkata at Thebes to Amarna, so would they have moved back there initially, or moved directly to Memphis, unused as the capital for decades by then. I wonder what bearing this may have had on the movement of the royal mummies. Clearly Tutankhamun directs others to move his dead family members, though in what seem difficult times, maybe he, or whoever was acting for him, Ay ? would have kept a close eye on this. Could the opportunity have been taken to move other members of the family, for instance no known mummy or tomb for crown prince Thutmose has ever been found, his burial presumed to be at Saqqara, but with no evidence. The sarcophagus of his cat and the model funeral bier were both found by the site of the Temple of Ptah at Mit Rahina, not across the road in the Sakkara necropolis, so likely items kept in storage in the temple until it was demolished, perhaps in early Christian times.

FWIW.  I'm remembering that AIII's palace Malkata was distinct from earlier palaces (and later ones) in the Theban environs in that the seat of government had been transferred there from Memphis, breaking long tradition.  The archives, the treasury, administrative bodies, etc. all were up and moved to AIII in Thebes.  Eventually there came the repeat process of Akhenaten transferring the seat of government from Malkata to Akhetaten.  After the death of Neferneferuaten/Nefertiti, I suppose, the Regents decided it would be wise for strategic and traditional reasons to move the government back to Memphis and for the Royals to assume the palace there (which must surely have needed refurbishment) and for them to use Malkata as the family's northern palace at Thebes, which was in line with Thuthmosid traditions regarding their Royal palaces at Thebes, and surely they might still prefer Malkata to Memphis because of its spaciousness, familiarity, or some such considerations.  There's evidence it long survived in various conditions before eventually being abandoned.

It's noteworthy that when the court abandoned Akhetaten (the city itself of course lived on for a while), the Royal correspondence for only the courts of AIII and Akhenaten was left behind, dumped together and buried as everything else was shipped, we understand, back to Memphis.  (Or maybe it indicates that the Royal Archive never came to Akhetaten in toto.)   I surmise the Royal family (Tut et al) had already been moved to Malkata and would stay there mostly.  Where the 'court' moved to, considering the Regents were in power, is a nice question.  I guess Memphis.

It was traditional, I think, for the High Priests of Ptah to be buried at Saqqara and so, even though a Crown Prince, it made some sense for Thutmose to be there....somewhere.  Other HPP's tombs have been found on the plateau.  But the thing there is that so much of the necropolis is deeply buried under sand and even the plateau is layered and honeycombed with burials of various types.  And there are those important tombs of Amarna era high officials.  If Thuthmose was there, then there might have been seen a precedent to move some of his relatives in with him.  But why?  Secrecy, availability?  Why not the Valley; some Amarna mummies have been found there in a small tomb, I forget the number; were they Royal?  Why send the Royals to Saqqara if there was room for them in VotK?

Edited by Wistman
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25 minutes ago, Wistman said:

 

It's noteworthy that when the court abandoned Akhetaten (the city itself of course lived on for a while), the Royal correspondence for only the courts of AIII and Akhenaten was left behind, dumped together and buried as everything else was shipped, we understand, back to Memphis.  (Or maybe it indicates that the Royal Archive never came to Akhetaten in toto.)   

Perhaps leaving the Royal Archive at Memphis was another break with the past, like creating the new capital and embracing monotheism. The dumping of the Amarna archive is interesting. Why not destroy it outright instead of taking the time to bury it? Why would AIII’s correspondence have been discarded?

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7 minutes ago, Antigonos said:

Perhaps leaving the Royal Archive at Memphis was another break with the past, like creating the new capital and embracing monotheism. The dumping of the Amarna archive is interesting. Why not destroy it outright instead of taking the time to bury it? Why would AIII’s correspondence have been discarded?

You're right it makes sense that the bulk of it was kept at Memphis.  AIII really only needed his government's temporal business around him at Malkata.  During Amarna the state of Memphis is murky, but it is significant that the Great Temple of Ptah and its campus was not shut down by Akhenaten, though it seems that no HPP was appointed by him. What other official buildings and the state they were is not really known; it's assumed, being Egypt, that they were run down by then. 

Most of the Royal correspondence found at Amarna consists of letters from foreign kings to the Crown or copies of correspondence sent from Amarna to the same foreign monarchs.  Many of these letters have deteriorated into rubble, but some are quite readable, though bits are commonly missing due to chipping, etc.

The political situation in regards to foreign affairs had deteriorated substantially by the time that the Regents took power.  These correspondences may have been deemed useless with the changed circumstances.  Some of them are supplicant in nature, others may have seemed embarrassing to the reconstituted government.  Perhaps it was just expedient for some powerful party to have them disappear.  Maybe they weren't meant to be discarded, but were just forgotten and unknowingly dumped as office trash.

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On 6/7/2024 at 2:29 PM, Aldebaran said:

An interesting read.  However, are mosquitoes really so prevalent in an arid place? 

An arid place right alongside one of the largest rivers in the world -- a river that floods yearly and leaves a lot of pools of water behind that slowly dry up.  There's at least 5 common mosquito-borne diseases in Egypt (and a number of less common ones) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35891557/#:~:text=There are at least five,Chikungunya virus%2C and Sindbis virus.

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Mosquitoes are common in Cairo these days.   Very annoying.

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Posted (edited)

I've read a paper on Tutankhamun's lunar jewelry, the first one I've ever come across, by Lorelei H. Corcoran. The paper is within a 2023 book, an honorific for Nicholas Reeves, so I have nothing to link to.

I've made comment on these lunar items a number of times over the years, but to finally see then professionally dealt with is an eye opener. What Corcoran proposes is that the lunar items constitute a perpetual Heb Sed, beginning from Tutankhamun's coronation. This runs contra to the idea that the Heb Sed was first celebrated on the thirteeth anniversary of the King's coronation, and every three years after that until he died. Corocoran also points out something that I missed. I had been reading the lunar throne name as Neb-Kheperu-Iah, but she shows that one of the "neb", "lord", signs on one of the pieces is in fact the "heb" sign, the sign for festival, and the name should read as Heb-Kheperu-Iah. There's more of course.

Edited by Wepwawet
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Posted (edited)
10 hours ago, Wepwawet said:

I've read a paper on Tutankhamun's lunar jewelry, the first one I've ever come across, by Lorelei H. Corcoran. The paper is within a 2023 book, an honorific for Nicholas Reeves, so I have nothing to link to.

I've made comment on these lunar items a number of times over the years, but to finally see then professionally dealt with is an eye opener. What Corcoran proposes is that the lunar items constitute a perpetual Heb Sed, beginning from Tutankhamun's coronation. This runs contra to the idea that the Heb Sed was first celebrated on the thirteeth anniversary of the King's coronation, and every three years after that until he died. Corocoran also points out something that I missed. I had been reading the lunar throne name as Neb-Kheperu-Iah, but she shows that one of the "neb", "lord", signs on one of the pieces is in fact the "heb" sign, the sign for festival, and the name should read as Heb-Kheperu-Iah. There's more of course.

So fascinating, derivation of power from the moon other than the sun.  Still, the Thutmosids were already playing fast and loose with the prerogatives of the ancient festival.  Hatshepsut calculated her reign complexly, celebrating the heb sed in her 16th regnal year rather than her thirtieth, clever girl.  Still, from the images in the reconstructed Red Chapel at Karnak we see her running with the Apis Bull between the markers, four times wearing the Red Crown of lower Egypt, then four times wearing the White Crown of upper Egypt.  She proved her fitness at the very least if images can be believed.  But now I wonder at the festivals of AIII, especially after his thirtieth where he's purported to be obese and luxuriant, running the eight circuits with the Apis Bull, hmmm.  Maybe he was carried, or his 'running' was staged.  Things had already become somewhat elastic I'd say regarding this ancient festival of renewing and affirming the prowess of the king.

And then there's Akhenaten's interpretations for the 'new' Egypt he'd designed.  In his third regnal year he celebrated his first heb sed at the Gem-pa-Aten, as if he was already past his thirtieth ...or his father's counted as his own.   Not sure if he celebrated another, maybe he thought it all superfluous, as it seemingly had become, at least during the Amarna experiment.  Still, there is supposedly an epithet of Aten as 'Lord of the Sed-festivals', dated to Yr12, and implies Akhenaten celebrated such at Akhetaten; I don't have a good reference to confirm this though.  So this notion of Tut's later lunar alignment with a continuous heb sed is most interesting, but a little confusing I'd think - how did it work, perpetually?  Was this a reaction to Akhenaten's solar absolutism?

In the following dynasty Rameses II of course had many heb sed festivals, 13 or 14, but he only separated them by two years.  It's good to be the king.

  .

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Posted (edited)
12 hours ago, Wistman said:

So this notion of Tut's later lunar alignment with a continuous heb sed is most interesting, but a little confusing I'd think - how did it work, perpetually?  Was this a reaction to Akhenaten's solar absolutism?

Cocoran does indeed see this as a repudiation of "Atenism", and yes, it is confusing, as always. What it seems the lunar jewelry signifies is that Tutankhamun is now the "living" Osiris, and had been from the start of his reign. This does not fit into any discussions about Amarna and looks to be out of left field. However, it's made me think about the Osirian colosal statues of Akhenaten found at Karnak. Do these say that while Akhenaten has done away with Osiris, ressurection is now to be found with Akhenaten, I don't know, but the possibility presents itself. If so, does Tutankhamun follow his father in this regard, though he will simply be a manifestation of the now un-banned Osiris. Corcoran points out that the lunar items show clear signs of use, so they are not items made only for the burial of a dead king.

I wonder if we have been missing a major part of their theology vis a vis the living king and Osiris, because it's manifestation exists only in the form of a kings personal jewelry, not as texts on temple or tomb walls. Tutankhamun's jewelry is pretty much all we have of any kings jewelry, so maybe this business with Osiris was common, but with no evidence apart from Tutankhamun, and with items overlooked and not discussed. There are other factors which I'll get back to.

Edited by Wepwawet
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14 hours ago, Wistman said:

So fascinating, derivation of power from the moon other than the sun.  ....  So this notion of Tut's later lunar alignment with a continuous heb sed is most interesting, but a little confusing I'd think - how did it work, perpetually?  Was this a reaction to Akhenaten's solar absolutism?

 

  .

If Tut walked with canes, due to a deformed foot, then it would be riduculous to see him try to sprint around a race cource for a Heb Sed festival.

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22 minutes ago, atalante said:

If Tut walked with canes, due to a deformed foot, then it would be riduculous to see him try to sprint around a race cource for a Heb Sed festival.

Maybe it was the origin of today’s “special Olympics”.

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Posted (edited)
1 hour ago, atalante said:

If Tut walked with canes, due to a deformed foot, then it would be riduculous to see him try to sprint around a race cource for a Heb Sed festival.

And I'm sure he never could. I think it's a case of us seeing the depiction of Djoser performing, and assuming that all kings actually had to do it. I think the reality may be that early in their history a king did have to physically prove himself, but over time it became a formality. Even Djoser may have never actually performed, the depictions doing it for him magically for eternity, even if a king states that they performed, another form of magic. Lots of smoke and mirrors with these kings I think.

Edited by Wepwawet
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Maybe the perpetual Lunar heb-sed was devised specifically for Tutankhamun because of his permanent disability.  He would never have to prove/show renewal by way of a ritual because he was constantly being renewed by the lunar aspect.

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There are still some issues, if such they be, with these lunar items that Corcoran does not address. Primarily she makes no mention that this lunar name only appears in the design of an item, never in a cartouche. It may be obvious, but it leaves the question of why not in a cartouche. Then the more ephemeral issue of strap lengths. I showed some years back that of all the jewelry items that still had it's strap, all the lunar items had a much shorter strap than all of the solar and other pieces. This indicates that the lunar items may have only been used in the first few years of his reign, though without all the straps this has to be conjecture because if just one of the lunar items had had a longer strap, then this is not an issue, but we have to go on what we have.

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On 6/21/2024 at 4:20 PM, Wistman said:

So fascinating, derivation of power from the moon other than the sun.  Still, the Thutmosids were already playing fast and loose with the prerogatives of the ancient festival.  Hatshepsut calculated her reign complexly, celebrating the heb sed in her 16th regnal year rather than her thirtieth, clever girl.

Don't forget Hatshepsut had adopted a false narrative, which made everything complex.  In order to present herself as the true successor, she told the tale of a fake coronation at Deir el Bahari as the coregent of her late father, already then being given the prenomen of Maatkare.  The oracle that proclaimed this should happen was in someone's Year 2--probably that of Thutmose I if that is to make any sense.  As I think he reigned for about 13 years [last attestation 9] we can get 30 years by Hatshepsut's Year 16.   The short time, whatever it was, of Thutmose II had to be usurped, as well.  So...

Thutmose I.....11 yrs. left after Year 2

Thutmose II...3 years

Thut III/Hatshepsut ...16 equals  30 years in all

It works by this count.  Otherwise why celebrate a heb sed in Year 16?  Because Hatshepsut wouldn't dare actually usurp the years of her august father, she gave him a year on his own and then interposed herself in a coregency that never existed.  Usurping the time of her late husband was no problem, making him the false king as she was one before him.

But now the logic runs short because if Hatshepsut really had been a pharaoh before Thutmose II, one would think she would just keep counting from Year 2 of her father--but seems to stop at Year 1 of Thutmose II and start again from there.  Can Hatshepsut, then, have started in Year 7--usurping the three years of her late husband and the four independent years of his son?  If not, why is her Year 7 mentioned on the edge of a stela that, if I recall correctly, also contains the Year 4 of Thutmose III?  The latter still has a Year 5 attestation on his own but in the Sinai, far away from the intrigues at Thebes.  Then nothing for awhile.

If Hatshepsut, now the main ruler, had begun a false count--how could Thutmose III, resuming his sole reign after more than 20 years have changed that?  So many existing documents!  But there is a text that indicates that, at least, he felt he should observe his own heb sed in his true 30 years on the throne.  Hatshepsut had given herself and him the three years of his father but he realized that he hadn't actually ruled for 30 years until his Year 33.  Looks that way.  This is the inscription from el Bershe:

"Year 33 fourth month of the season of Shomu, Day 12, the beginning of countless jubilees, very many, [inscribed?] by Thoth, himself, in his writing upon the noble Ished Tree, etc..."

Thutmose III did not become king in the fourth month of Shomu but in the first month.  However, he was usually gone away from Egypt in the first month on his campaigns, so can have chosen a later one for festivities.

 

 

Elbershehlarge.JPG

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Posted (edited)

I read another paper today by Anna Stevens about the cemeteries at el Amarna.  Bodies just children and young adults, thousands of them.  No older people, no parents.  It makes me think of that '90's film "Stargate".  All those kids working for the villain, Ra.  Akhenaten kidnapped his young workers, too, I feel sure.  What a strange place this Akhetaten must have been.  Were people's children taken to insure the loyalty of their elders?  That's another aspect.  It was not uncommon at all throughout history.  There was a Welsh nobleman whom King Richard III did not quite trust, evidently, so he asked the Welshman to send him his young son.  The man's name has flown out of my head--but he had the courage to refuse the request of the English king.  Probably he knew more about him then that Richard III Society of today is willing to admit.  I believe it was the same man who ended up killing Richard on the field of battle.  Rhys ap Thomas--that was his name.

Edited by Aldebaran
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Posted (edited)
18 hours ago, Aldebaran said:

I read another paper today by Anna Stevens about the cemeteries at el Amarna.  Bodies just children and young adults, thousands of them.  No older people, no parents.  It makes me think of that '90's film "Stargate".  All those kids working for the villain, Ra.  Akhenaten kidnapped his young workers, too, I feel sure.  What a strange place this Akhetaten must have been.  Were people's children taken to insure the loyalty of their elders?  That's another aspect.  It was not uncommon at all throughout history.  There was a Welsh nobleman whom King Richard III did not quite trust, evidently, so he asked the Welshman to send him his young son.  The man's name has flown out of my head--but he had the courage to refuse the request of the English king.  Probably he knew more about him then that Richard III Society of today is willing to admit.  I believe it was the same man who ended up killing Richard on the field of battle.  Rhys ap Thomas--that was his name.

You’re absolutely correct. The idea of a ruler keeping someone’s children as a guarantee of good behavior is something seen throughout history and across cultures.

Another example is Vlad II Dracul of Wallachia sending his two younger sons Vlad and Radu to the court of the Turkish sultan Murad II. It was also a way of voluntarily gaining a monarch’s trust. A notable example of this followed the Polish insurrection of 1794. The aristocratic Czartoryski family, threatened with the confiscation of their lands, sent the young princes Adam and Constantine to the court of Catherine the Great to be raised alongside her two eldest grandsons Alexander and Constantine. (I have Adam’s memoirs). Of course I don’t believe in the case of Amarna there was anything voluntary about it.

It’s a most interesting question. Thanks for sharing this information. I’m going to look up the article.

It would be most interesting to see Amarna at its height. 
 

 

 

 

Edited by Antigonos
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2 hours ago, Aldebaran said:

Hi Antigonos,

Anna Stevens should have a couple of papers about the Amarna cemeteries at Academia.edu.  Just do a search on her name there.  An incredible amount of deaths for such a short period of habitation.

Here is the link to my paper on the subject:

https://www.academia.edu/18880935/AKHENATEN_ANGEL_OF_DEATH

Thank you, much appreciated! 

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On 7/2/2024 at 3:24 PM, Aldebaran said:

Hi Antigonos,

Anna Stevens should have a couple of papers about the Amarna cemeteries at Academia.edu.  Just do a search on her name there.  An incredible amount of deaths for such a short period of habitation.

Here is the link to my paper on the subject:

https://www.academia.edu/18880935/AKHENATEN_ANGEL_OF_DEATH

Hello Aldebaran

I’ve read your article, and found it to be very informative, thank you. Among other things  it really makes clear how unpleasant the living conditions at Amarna must have been. I can’t imagine how Akhenaten thought the situation would be sustainable in the long term.

I’m going to read Anna Stevens’ articles next.

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The question I ask about the Amarna cemeteries is are we looking at an aberration, or what was the norm, at least for this era.

The very nature of Akhenaten and the changes he made distort our view. He changed the religion, the capital, and brought in a new building technique, but did he change how society usually worked. To an extent he must have of course, but keeping discussion on these cemeteries for the poor, is this a consequence of how Akhenaten was doing things, or a continuation of how things had always been.

Preservation of evidence can skew the picture. Here is Akhetaten in the middle of nowhere on virgin land, occupied for a few decades and then abandoned. This I think is why these cemeteries have survived to be found. Nobody has re-used the ground, and as it is on the east bank, would not want to be buried there unless there was no alternative. Note that the royal tomb and the tombs of the nobles do not seem to have been used after their occupants had been moved out when the city was abandoned, if they had been on the west bank they would have been re-used I think, but not these ones, apparently.

So we have a situation at Amarna that does not exist elsewhere, a city and it's necropoli abandoned and in a form of stasis. The situation at other sites,Thebes or Memphis, is very different and there are no large cemeteries for the poor as there are at Amarna, they get lost over time, they are not in the best locations. If similar cemeteries were found outside of Amarna, and from before and after Akhenaten, would we see the same thing, or something different. I don't know.

Akhenaten the prototype Stalin and his GULAG ? or Akhenaten doing what his predecessors had done.

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Posted (edited)
On 7/4/2024 at 7:38 AM, Wepwawet said:

So we have a situation at Amarna that does not exist elsewhere, a city and it's necropoli abandoned and in a form of stasis. The situation at other sites, Thebes or Memphis, is very different and there are no large cemeteries for the poor as there are at Amarna, they get lost over time, they are not in the best locations. If similar cemeteries were found outside of Amarna, and from before and after Akhenaten, would we see the same thing, or something different. I don't know.

Akhenaten the prototype Stalin and his GULAG ? or Akhenaten doing what his predecessors had done.

One thing about the pharaohs that has always been downplayed is that most of them were probably despots to some extent.  Ancient Egypt, on the whole, has been romanticized to the point where a number of Egyptophiles don't even want to admit there were slaves in the country, even become upset at the mention.  It is a strange phenomenon.  Ancient Egypt the Utopia.  Do you recall reading about Nakht the weaver?  Probably there is still something about him online.  He was just a young kid, supposedly working as a weaver in the Theban area but, on examination, the lungs of his mummy were said to have been full of the red dust that was associated with a southern quarry. Aswan, where the pharaohs got their granite.  In the article that I read long ago it was suggested that Nakht had been punished and sent there--but probably the truth was that any number of men and boys could become conscripted at any time to do some labor outside of their ordinary jobs.

The papyrus, the Satire of the Trades, makes it plain that the pharaohs' armies were mostly made up of men from the villages, ordinary farmers who had no choice but to go when the king made up his mind to fight somewhere.  Everything in Egypt depended upon him, always building if not always fighting.  The workforce had to come from somewhere but not all the king's of Egypt had a ready supply of slave labor, people they had dragged to Egypt as a result of their conquest.  Amenhotep III was not a conqueror but he built plenty, even dug a lake.  The thing that is different about the city of his son, that same Tell el Amarna, is the absence of dead older adults.  They, normally, should constitute the majority of the dead--but evidently such persons. unless they happened to be servants of Akhenaten or Nefertiti, known to them since childhood, were not invited to go to live at Akhetaten or did not want to go there.

So, I think you were suggesting there might always have been young workers--and I think that's true.  But as young as the skeletal remains found at Amarna?  I wonder!  They had worked, but I questioned the motive behind their presence without their parents.  Now I think I'll go to find something about Nakht.

Okay, scroll down on this page for more info on Nakht.

https://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/nakht.htm

Edited by Aldebaran
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Posted (edited)
11 hours ago, Aldebaran said:

So, I think you were suggesting there might always have been young workers--and I think that's true.  But as young as the skeletal remains found at Amarna?  I wonder!  They had worked, but I questioned the motive behind their presence without their parents.

I'm sure you already know all the information I'm going to lay out, so it's for the mythical "readers".

Here we get to the underbelly of AE society. If in post enlightenment 19th Century England children as young as eight could be found in mines or warships, and ten year olds hung, an improvement from the 16th Century when an eight year old could be hung, should we expect much different from the AE. Unfortunately, and expectedly, the answer is no. Evidence suggests that children around the age of six were in the AE army, not fighting of course, probably being used as servants, and learning how the army worked before they were big enough to fight. Then allthough some cemeteries have been found only for children, there is further evidence that the AE state did not distuinguish children from adults, only the small size and weak strength of children determining what work they did. Then there is the evidence of how harsh the state could be towards the population. If a soldier deserted, and technically this soldier could still be a child in our eyes, his entire family would be either thrown into prison or put to work at the plow, forever. This punishent seems not just to be for the lowest social groups, but also those a bit higher up.

I wonder if what Akhenaten did was to order each family to supply a worker to build Akhetaten, and while there would of course have been adults, the bulk of the workforce were adolescents and young adults. There is further evidence, from the time of Seti I, that nearly fifty percent of a given workforce could be comprised of children and adolescents, the other half of the workforce being comprised of ablebodied men and old men. So potentially at Amarna a workforce where only about 30% of them were ablebodied men. I'm not sure this is right, and probably not for construction where you do need muscle power, but the written evidence is all we can go on.

Edit: Yes, it's easy to be swayed by the rose tinted image of Ancient Egypt created by the Victorians, or in modern times by the mellifluous tones and slightly purple prose of John Romer. Akhenaten the hippy, or closer to Jim Jones and his Koolaid.

Edited by Wepwawet
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Posted (edited)

On to a different topic and a reminder that the first really striking evidence of a long coregency between Amenhotep III and Akhenaten was published in Kmt Magazine exactly ten years ago in this very summer season.

https://www.academia.edu/8243823/Amenhotep_III_and_Amenhotep_IV_The_long_coregency_in_the_Chapel_of_the_Vizier_of_Amenhotep_Huy_Tomb_No_28_at_Asasif_

But, of course, being Egyptology, there are still scholars in the field who prefer to ignore all of it--even though a long coregency makes better sense of so much other evidence that has emerged from the period over time.  Not that one of the authors of the above article, Dr. Francisco Jose Martin Valentin doesn't have his own blind spots.  I used to be on very good terms with him until I advised him, on a Spanish FB discussion page, that DNA didn't support his theory that Amenhotep III was the father of Tut.  He replied that he had studied the DNA, himself, and that I should be more humble.  I offered to show him, very briefly, exactly what prevented the paternity and with that I was banished from the page.  Do enquiring minds really want to know everything?  Maybe not.

I have in these ten years shown how Manetho already indicated this coregency by giving the exact length of the sole reign of Amenhotep III as 30 years and 10 months--and supplied the month in which Amenhotep III, as "Orus" or Horus-Aten died.  The 5th month.  Can it be a coincidence that Akhenaten wrote a colophon on a boundary stela renewing his oath to remain where he was in his Year 8--in the 5th month?  There is the Meidum graffito that says that Amenhotep III placed his male heir on the throne in his Year 30 and the colophon seems to supply the terminus for the this coregency--Year 8 the 5th month of Akhenaten.   Also, that it was already Year 17 of the same king when the new wine was processed in I Akhet at the time makes it quite likely that he really was crowned in the tenth month, the same month in which his father celebrated his first heb sed in his Year 30.  And how can it be any coincidence that Akhenaten changed the cartouches of the Aten [to eliminate the Ra-Horakhty and the Shu that were two elements of the "holy trinity" that was the main reason for the coregency] around his Year 9 once the father was dead and also began the persecution of the orthodox pantheon at the very same time?  Does the mummy of Queen Tiye not look like that of an old lady because she, having been a child bride in the first place, lost eight years of age because of this coregency?  All these points are made in my various papers, to be found at Academia.edu.

 

 

Edited by Aldebaran
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