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Hubble finds a black hole igniting star formation in a dwarf galaxy


Manwon Lender
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Often portrayed as destructive monsters that hold light captive, black holes take on a less villainous role in the latest research from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. A black hole at the heart of the dwarf galaxy Henize 2-10 is creating stars rather than gobbling them up. The black hole is apparently contributing to the firestorm of new star formation taking place in the galaxy. The dwarf galaxy lies 30 million light-years away, in the southern constellation Pyxis. "Ten years ago, as a graduate student thinking I would spend my career on star formation, I looked at the data from Henize 2-10 and everything changed," said Amy Reines, who published the first evidence for a black hole in the galaxy in 2011 and is the principal investigator on the new Hubble observations, published in the January 19 issue of Nature.

From the beginning I knew something unusual and special was happening in Henize 2-10, and now Hubble has provided a very clear picture of the connection between the black hole and a neighboring star forming region located 230 light-years from the black hole," Reines said.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/01/220119194144.htm

@zep73

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39 minutes ago, zep73 said:

Very very odd!

Well science has argued for years about what happens to all the material that is sucked into a black hole. Maybe they have made a discovery that answers that question. We already know that energy can never be destroyed once created only changed, and all the material entering a black hole must create a great deal of energy as the material is reduced to the molecular level. So as this material is recycled through the black hole in this manner when it exits it may regain some form of cohesion based upon positive and negatively charged particles which could form nebulas or actually create stars directly like they have discovered in the galaxy this article was written about.

Anyway for me, I have always viewed black holes as the Universes recycler. When you think of them from this prospective and that this is there primary purpose it’s easy to see how a Universe could continue expanding and at increased speeds. Think about this the oldest discovered galaxy is approximately 13.4 Billion years old, most of the Stars are near the end of lives and the materials to continue growth have been used up so Star creation has almost come to a stand still. In this case black holes can do an effective job of cleaning up the mess recycling the materials so that the waste can become useful again in the form of Nebulas that can over time a completely new and young Galaxy. 

This is just me thinking out load, I don’t know if it makes sense or not but this discovery of a black hole creating stars at least to me makes it seem possible.

Thanks for your participation in this thread, and please give me your thoughts on the subject!:tu:

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25 minutes ago, Manwon Lender said:

Well science has argued for years about what happens to all the material that is sucked into a black hole. Maybe they have made a discovery that answers that question. We already know that energy can never be destroyed once created only changed, and all the material entering a black hole must create a great deal of energy as the material is reduced to the molecular level. So as this material is recycled through the black hole in this manner when it exits it may regain some form of cohesion based upon positive and negatively charged particles which could form nebulas or actually create stars directly like they have discovered in the galaxy this article was written about.

Anyway for me, I have always viewed black holes as the Universes recycler. When you think of them from this prospective and that this is there primary purpose it’s easy to see how a Universe could continue expanding and at increased speeds. Think about this the oldest discovered galaxy is approximately 13.4 Billion years old, most of the Stars are near the end of lives and the materials to continue growth have been used up so Star creation has almost come to a stand still. In this case black holes can do an effective job of cleaning up the mess recycling the materials so that the waste can become useful again in the form of Nebulas that can over time a completely new and young Galaxy. 

This is just me thinking out load, I don’t know if it makes sense or not but this discovery of a black hole creating stars at least to me makes it seem possible.

Thanks for your participation in this thread, and please give me your thoughts on the subject!:tu:

It is a beautiful philosophy, but it carries a big problem within it. Once something has passed the event horizon, it can only escape if it's faster than the speed of light, which makes escape impossible. Hawking radiation escapes at the event horizon, not from within. One could imagine particles also escaping from the event horizon, but the strong gravity there makes it very difficult.

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1 hour ago, zep73 said:

It is a beautiful philosophy, but it carries a big problem within it. Once something has passed the event horizon, it can only escape if it's faster than the speed of light, which makes escape impossible. Hawking radiation escapes at the event horizon, not from within. One could imagine particles also escaping from the event horizon, but the strong gravity there makes it very difficult.

Well, this is an area like I that I have little knowledge of said above I was only talking out loud and was not sure if it made any sense. So, I did a little research the subject for my own benefit. I found some interesting information for one, Hawking doesn't believe that Black Hole have an event horizon and that they do allow material to be released besides Hawking Radiation. If the escape velocity from a black hole is the speed of light than light can be released from a Black Hole. Here is some information I have found if you get time, please look at it and tell me what you think I may be interpretation of some this could certainly be inncorrect!

Thanks for your comments above and for taking a look at this my friend!:tu:

 

Black hole

The pattern of the flashes indicated that X-rays were being reflected from behind the black hole, as the supermassive object warped space-time and bent light — a phenomenon that was predicted by theoretical physicist Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity (AKA general relativity), published back in 1915, but which up to this point never actually had been confirmed. The researchers originally set out to study a different aspect of black holes. When gas is pulled into a supermassive black hole, it superheats to millions of degrees, causing electrons to separate from atoms and form a magnetized plasma that arcs high over the hole and twirls and breaks, in a way that resembles our sun's corona.

Light bending and X-ray echoes from behind a supermassive black hole: Light bending and X-ray echoes from behind a supermassive black hole | Nature

In its stead, Hawking’s radical proposal is a much more benign “apparent horizon”, which only temporarily holds matter and energy prisoner before eventually releasing them, albeit in a more garbled form. But when the call to redefine, these cosmic crunchers comes from Stephen Hawking, it’s worth taking notice. In a paper posted online, the physicist, based at the University of Cambridge, UK, and one of the creators of modern black-hole theory, does away with the notion of an event horizon, the invisible boundary thought to shroud every black hole, beyond which nothing, not even light, can escape. The journal seems to support Hawking idea that material can escape from Black Holes, and her light escapes from a Black Holes backside and which also makes it possible that other material can possible, escape.

Stephen Hawking: 'There are no black holes' https://www.nature.com/articles/nature.2014.14583

It has been suggested  that the resolution of the information paradox for evaporating black holes is that the holes are surrounded by firewalls, bolts of outgoing radiation that would destroy any infalling observer. Such fire walls would break the CPT invariance of quantum gravity and seem to be ruled out on other grounds. A different resolution of the paradox is proposed, namely that gravitational collapse produces apparent horizons but no event horizons behind which information is lost. This proposal is supported by ADS-CFT and is the only resolution of the paradox compatible with CPT. The collapse to form a black hole will in general be chaotic and the dual CFT on the boundary of ADS will be turbulent. Thus, like weather forecasting on Earth, information will effectively be lost, although there would be no loss of unitarity. https://arxiv.org/abs/1401.5761

There are two such metrics: periodically identified anti deSitter space, and Schwarzschild anti deSitter. Only periodically identified anti deSitter space contributes to the boundary to boundary correlation functions because the correlation functions from the Schwarzschild anti deSitter metric decay exponentially with real time [8, 9]. I take this as indicating that the topologically trivial periodically identified anti deSitter metric is the metric that interpolates between collapse to a black hole and evaporation. There would be no event horizons and no firewalls

The absence of event horizons mean that there are no black holes - in the sense of regimes from which light can’t escape to infinity. There are however apparent horizons which persist for a period of time. This suggests that black holes should be redefined as metastable bound states of the gravitational field. It will also mean that the CFT on the boundary of anti deSitter space will be dual to the whole anti deSitter space, and not merely the region outside the horizon. 

Information preservation and weather forecasting for black holes: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.5761.pdf

The escape velocity from the center to infinity in a supergiant galaxy such as M87 is 1448 km s−1 (Valtonen 1996). Typical ejection velocities for the slingshot mechanism are between the escape velocity from the galaxy and 104 km s−1 (Rees & Saslaw 1975). Mikkola & Valtonen (1990) and Valtonen et al. (1994) studied slingshot ejections in merging galaxies and found two different outcomes: two-sided and one-sided escapes. Two-sided escapes are characterized by two black holes being thrown into opposite directions with nearly equal speeds; the ejection speed is close to the escape velocity from the galaxy. One-sided escapes occur at high speed, typically twice (but up to 4 times) the escape speed from the galaxy. Valtonen (1996) studied ejections in three-black-hole systems. The typical orbital velocities of the inner binaries in such systems are close to the escape velocity from the center of the host galaxy. In his simulations, ejection speeds in the range 1000-2000 km s−1 were common. RBHs may, in principle, trigger a burst of star formation in the wake of its trajectory. Rees & Saslaw (1975) studied the effects on the interstellar medium of a passing black hole. De Young (1981) studied the triggering of star formation in the stream after the ejection of an SMBH.

In this Letter we examine the effect of a runaway black hole’s passage through the interstellar or intergalactic medium using the impulse approximation and the Jeans stability criterion. This Letter is organized as follows: In § 2 we present the star formation triggering mechanism proposed in this research. In § 3 we summarize the available observational evidence. In § 4 we discuss our results and present our conclusions.
The Invisible Hand: Star Formation Triggered by Runaway Black Holes: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/587962/fulltext/22587.text.html
 
 
 
 
 

 

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Hubble sure has a long eye

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